Pacific Offshore Wind Environmental Research Recommendations

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The U.S. Offshore Wind Synthesis of Environmental Effects Research (SEER) effort compiled a database of research recommendations, from over 40 existing resources, that are relevant to the environmental effects of offshore wind energy development on the U.S. Pacific Coast (California, Oregon, and Washington). The SEER team then synthesized the over 500 individual research recommendations into roughly 50 broad overarching topics to provide an overview of what is included in the database. 

The database includes input from the SEER Pacific Research Recommendations Workshop held during May 3-5, 2022. The stakeholder workshop focused on preconstruction (baseline) research needs for potential floating offshore wind energy development on the U.S. Pacific Coast. The workshop covered three marine life breakout groups on subsequent days to discuss recommendations related to: 1) marine mammals and sea turtles, 2) fish and invertebrates, and 3) birds and bats. The final Workshop Report includes a summary of discussions and key takeaways from each breakout group.

The online tool below presents the synthesized research recommendations and provides links to relevant citations. Results can be refined by selecting from the drop-down menus or entering a search term. Synthesized research recommendations are ordered alphabetically. The order does not signify the importance or priority of each recommendation.

Download the complete database as a spreadsheet here.

Download the synthesized recommendations below as a spreadsheet here.

A similar database for the U.S. Atlantic Coast is available here.

Research Recommendation Stressor/Topic Receptor Development Phase Citations
Adapt study design for OSW farm presence

Develop integrated methods and survey design to adapt long-term data collection to the presence of OSW structures. Survey methods include fisheries trawl, aerial and other baseline distribution and oceanographic surveys that could utilize autonomous monitoring methods.

Technology/ Methods Development Bats, Benthos, Birds, Ecosystem/Oceanographic processes, Fishes, Invertebrates, Marine mammals Pre-construction, Operations & Maintenance Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM) 2022, Brodie et al. 2021, Degraer et al. 2021, Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC) 2021, Responsible Offshore Development Alliance (RODA) 2021
Assess acoustic exposure from OSW activities

Identify acoustic exposure and contextual conditions associated with potential acute response to OSW stressors, including a review of sound sources, assessment of potential exposure and susceptibility during different phases of development (including geophysical surveys for site assessment).

Noise Benthos, Fishes, Invertebrates, Marine mammals, Sea turtles Construction, Operations & Maintenance Di Franco et al. 2020, Edmonds et al. 2016, Gulka and Williams 2020, Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC) 2021, Kraus et al. 2019, Southall et al. 2021
Assess and improve accuracy of collision risk models

Validate aspects of existing collision risk models including flight height, flux based on density estimates, avoidance rates, and how comparable collision estimates are with empirical measurements....Read more

Validate aspects of existing collision risk models including flight height, flux based on density estimates, avoidance rates, and how comparable collision estimates are with empirical measurements. In addition to validation, improve models to better capture uncertainty, behavior-specific risk, and use for floating OSW technology.

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Technology/ Methods Development, Turbine collision Bats, Birds Operations & Maintenance Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC) 2021, New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) 2020, Skov et al. 2018
Assess and improve accuracy of sound modeling

Validate and improve existing sound models, including sound propagation predictions, fleeing swim speeds, and associated uncertainty. Assess key sensitives for different models and standardize approaches.

Technology/ Methods Development, Noise Marine mammals Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC) 2021, WOZEP project team 2016
Assess auditory effects from OSW-related sound

Assess the degree to which animals experience auditory effects of various types (e.g., threshold shifts, masking), with a focus on impulsive sound (e.g., pile driving), understanding variation based on piling size, changes in mitigation technology, and species characteristics (e.g., life stage,...Read more

Assess the degree to which animals experience auditory effects of various types (e.g., threshold shifts, masking), with a focus on impulsive sound (e.g., pile driving), understanding variation based on piling size, changes in mitigation technology, and species characteristics (e.g., life stage, hearing capabilities).

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Noise Benthos, Fishes, Invertebrates, Marine mammals Pre-construction, Construction, Operations & Maintenance Degraer et al. 2017, Kraus et al. 2019, Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC) 2021, Petruny-Parker et al. 2015, Responsible Offshore Development Alliance (RODA) 2021
Assess avoidance and flight behaviors to inform collision risk models

Examine three-dimensional bird flight behavior around turbines, including avoidance at varying scales (micro-, meso-, macro), flight height and speed, and proportion of birds flying vs. sitting inside vs. outside wind farm, and the effects of environmental covariates on these patterns.

Avoidance, Turbine collision Birds Pre-construction, Operations & Maintenance Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC) 2021, New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) 2020, Skov et al. 2018
Assess behavioral disturbance from OSW vessel activity

Examine animal responses to vessels (in the absence of piling activity) alongside received sound levels from vessels and information on ship density, type and proximity

Vessel collision, Avoidance Marine mammals Construction, Operations & Maintenance, Decommissioning Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC) 2021
Assess changes in foraging behavior

Investigate the effects of OSW on foraging/feeding behaviors

Movement and Behavior Benthos, Fishes, Marine mammals, Sea turtles Construction, Operations & Maintenance Gitschlag et al. 2021, Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC) 2021, Responsible Offshore Development Alliance (RODA) 2021
Assess changes in larval dispersal and connectivity around OSW structures

Assess the extent of larval dispersal and connectivity among offshore installations and natural habitats

Population Dynamics Benthos Decommissioning Fowler et al. 2020
Assess changes in nursery habitat around OSW structures

Examine whether offshore installations provide recruitment sites or nursery habitat for ecologically- or commercially-important species.

Habitat Change Benthos Decommissioning Fowler et al. 2020
Assess changes in primary productivity due to disturbance

Assess whether phytoplankton primary production may be reduced due to an increase in turbidity reducing light penetration in the water column.

Habitat Change Benthos, Ecosystem/Oceanographic processes Operations & Maintenance Dannheim et al. 2020
Assess changes in refugia habitat around OSW structures

Assess whether habitat changes from offshore development affect populations of managed species through disruption of juvenile cod and black sea bass refuge habitats, or the creation of new black sea bass or cod habitat.

Habitat Change Fishes, Invertebrates Construction, Operations & Maintenance, Decommissioning Gulka and Williams 2020
Assess changes in spawning habitat around OSW structures

Assess whether OSW hard substrata represent new spawning habitat (e.g., for egg attachment) or nursery habitat for some species, whether the increase in habitat for these purposes affects species distributions for spawning or juveniles, and whether these species benefit from the increase in...Read more

Assess whether OSW hard substrata represent new spawning habitat (e.g., for egg attachment) or nursery habitat for some species, whether the increase in habitat for these purposes affects species distributions for spawning or juveniles, and whether these species benefit from the increase in habitat for these purposes.

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Habitat Change Benthos, Fishes Pre-construction, Operations & Maintenance Degraer et al. 2021
Assess changes in water quality within OSW areas

Understand and quantify changes in water quality and sediment chemistry due to OSW energy development, including changes in light conditions (due to the suspension of sediment), hypoxia, primary production, algal blooms, contaminant loading (e.g., leaching from materials, drilling effluents),...Read more

Understand and quantify changes in water quality and sediment chemistry due to OSW energy development, including changes in light conditions (due to the suspension of sediment), hypoxia, primary production, algal blooms, contaminant loading (e.g., leaching from materials, drilling effluents), species health as potentially affected by maintenance chemicals.

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Habitat Change Benthos, Ecosystem/Oceanographic processes Construction, Operations & Maintenance, Decommissioning Carpenter et al. 2021, Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC) 2021, New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) 2015, Roche et al. 2016, Responsible Offshore Development Alliance (RODA) 2021
Assess chemical contaminant exposure from OSW structures

Assess the potential for chemicals/metals/toxins to be introduced to the marine environment from turbines/anti-corrosion/fouling paints and the potential effects on marine species....Read more

Assess the potential for chemicals/metals/toxins to be introduced to the marine environment from turbines/anti-corrosion/fouling paints and the potential effects on marine species. Monitor corrosion protection systems and associated chemical and metal emissions from operational wind farms, as well as chemicals and heavy metal contents within sediments and the water column within OSW farms. Study bioaccumulation of heavy metals within the food chain from biofouling/filter feeding organisms to top predators.

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Habitat Change Fishes Operations & Maintenance Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC) 2021
Assess cumulative impacts of large scale infrastructure

Assess data on amount and type of habitat impacted and fish species affected (e.g., EMF, displacement, noise, habitat loss) by OSW farm infrastructure, and use this to predict future cumulative impacts, with consideration for both negative and positive (e.g., reducing fishing pressure) effects....Read more

Assess data on amount and type of habitat impacted and fish species affected (e.g., EMF, displacement, noise, habitat loss) by OSW farm infrastructure, and use this to predict future cumulative impacts, with consideration for both negative and positive (e.g., reducing fishing pressure) effects.

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Cumulative Impacts Benthos, Fishes Pre-construction, Construction, Operations & Maintenance Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC) 2021
Assess degree of benthic disturbance caused by cable maintenance

Assess amount of cable failure and repair/replacement requirements and degree of disturbance these entail.

Habitat Change Benthos Operations & Maintenance Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC) 2021
Assess developmental effects from cable EMFs

Understand the effects of EMF on sessile organisms and the life-stages of mobile species that may experience increased exposure via inhabiting the seabed or cable protections, focusing on ontogenetic effects, how exposure in early life stages may affect later life stages (i.e., adults), and/or...Read more

Understand the effects of EMF on sessile organisms and the life-stages of mobile species that may experience increased exposure via inhabiting the seabed or cable protections, focusing on ontogenetic effects, how exposure in early life stages may affect later life stages (i.e., adults), and/or potential generational effects.

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Electromagnetic Fields, Population Dynamics Benthos, Fishes, Invertebrates, Marine mammals Construction, Operations & Maintenance Degraer et al. 2021, Lindeboom et al. 2015
Assess displacement caused by OSW-related sound

Assess displacement responses of key species to OSW-related sound (along with measurement of noise to estimate received levels), including impulsive and non-impulsive sounds (e.g., geophysical surveys, pile-driving, vessel traffic); focus on understanding the spatiotemporal scale of displacement,...Read more

Assess displacement responses of key species to OSW-related sound (along with measurement of noise to estimate received levels), including impulsive and non-impulsive sounds (e.g., geophysical surveys, pile-driving, vessel traffic); focus on understanding the spatiotemporal scale of displacement, including both horizontal and vertical movements (including into the sediment, if relevant).

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Displacement, Noise, Abundance and Distribution Benthos, Fishes, Invertebrates, Marine mammals, Sea turtles Pre-construction, Construction, Operations & Maintenance, Decommissioning Gulka and Williams 2020, Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC) 2021, Petruny-Parker et al. 2015, Popper et al. 2021, WOZEP project team 2016
Assess ecological impacts of OSW across scales

Assess the importance of ecological impacts at different scales, ranging from local to broader regional scales, and implications at the ecosystems level.

Cumulative Impacts Benthos, Ecosystem/Oceanographic processes, Fishes, Sea turtles Pre-construction, Construction, Operations & Maintenance, Decommissioning Gulka and Williams 2020, Kraus et al. 2019, Massachusetts Division of Marine Fisheries 2018
Assess ecosystem effect of organic matter deposition

Measure the positive and/or negative ecosystem effects of the displacement and aggregation of organic material from filter-feeding fouling fauna in OSW areas to guide future model developments.

Habitat Change Benthos, Ecosystem/Oceanographic processes Operations & Maintenance, Decommissioning De Borger et al. 2021
Assess ecosystem services provided by OSW-associates communities

Assess the types of ecosystem services provided by biological communities, especially benthic, associated with offshore installations.

Cumulative Impacts Benthos Decommissioning Fowler et al. 2020
Assess effects from EMF on behavior

Study how species detect/receive EMF, whether they respond to EMF (from both AC and DC cables) with changes in distributions or behavior, and whether those responses vary with factors such as EMF strength, cable burial depth, and floating/fixed technology.

Electromagnetic Fields, Movement and Behavior Benthos, Fishes, Invertebrates, Marine mammals, Sea turtles Pre-construction, Construction, Operations & Maintenance Gitschlag et al. 2021, Gulka and Williams 2020, Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC) 2021, New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) 2015, Petruny-Parker et al. 2015, Responsible Offshore Development Alliance (RODA) 2021, State of Maine 2021
Assess effects of cable protection structures on benthic communities

Understand the effect of cable protections on the ecological function of benthic communities, including considerations relating to habitat loss beneath cable protection as well as infilling or colonization of rock protection.

Habitat Change Benthos Operations & Maintenance Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC) 2021
Assess effects of change on lower trophic level food availability

Understand how the changed hydrodynamic conditions created by structures potentially affect lower trophic level marine life, including changes in food availability for filter-feeders.

Oceanographic/Atmospheric Change Benthos, Invertebrates Construction, Operations & Maintenance Dannheim et al. 2020, Responsible Offshore Development Alliance (RODA) 2021
Assess effects of heat from cables on benthos

Examine effects on local benthic communities and biogeochemistry in relation to cable heat generation and dissipation, cable characteristics (including whether the cable is buried, exposed, protected with concrete mattressing, etc.) and environmental characteristics such as ambient temperature...Read more

Examine effects on local benthic communities and biogeochemistry in relation to cable heat generation and dissipation, cable characteristics (including whether the cable is buried, exposed, protected with concrete mattressing, etc.) and environmental characteristics such as ambient temperature and porosity of seabed/protection

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Habitat Change, Oceanographic/Atmospheric Change Benthos Operations & Maintenance Degraer et al. 2021
Assess effects of increased epifaunal grazing on broad-scale primary productivity

Assess competing pressures of increased epifauna populations on primary productivity and nutrient cycling in local ecosystems associated with OSW development, including from the local to the broad scale.

Population Dynamics, Oceanographic/Atmospheric Change Benthos, Ecosystem/Oceanographic processes Operations & Maintenance Degraer et al. 2021
Assess effects of sediment re-suspension

Assess effects from sediment disturbance/resuspension (during construction) and sediment scouring (during operation) on the benthos, including mollusk, invertebrate, and finfish populations, with a focus on effects to activities such as filter feeding and recruitment.

Habitat Change, Diet and Food Web Dynamics Benthos, Ecosystem/Oceanographic processes, Fishes, Invertebrates Construction, Operations & Maintenance, Decommissioning Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC) 2021, New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) 2015, Responsible Offshore Development Alliance (RODA) 2021
Assess EMF effects on movement patterns

Examine whether EMF emitted by OSW cables (iE and B fields) affect the ability of fish and invertebrate species to derive locational cues, navigate, or migrate, or otherwise affect distributions.

Electromagnetic Fields, Movement and Behavior Benthos, Fishes, Invertebrates Pre-construction, Construction, Operations & Maintenance Degraer et al. 2021, Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC) 2021, Petruny-Parker et al. 2015, Responsible Offshore Development Alliance (RODA) 2021, WOZEP project team 2016
Assess entanglement risk from OSW

Evaluate the potential risk posed to marine life from OSW mooring lines, including interactions with commercial and recreational fishing and risk of secondary entanglement with derelict fishing gear caught on the cables

Entanglement Marine mammals, Sea turtles Pre-construction, Construction, Operations & Maintenance Bonacci-Sullivan 2018, Gitschlag et al. 2021, Responsible Offshore Development Alliance (RODA) 2021, State of Maine 2021
Assess hearing reduction (range and duration) related to different severities of TTS and PTS

Explore the relationship between level of noise exposure and severity of resulting temporary and permanent threshold shifts (TTS/PTS) including changes in hearing threshold by frequency, changes in hearing bandwidth/range, and TTS recovery time.

Noise Marine mammals Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC) 2021
Assess how environmental factors influence biodiversity on infrastructure

"How do environmental factors like temperature, depth, and currents influence biodiversity on offshore infrastructure?"

Ecological Drivers, Population Dynamics Benthos Decommissioning Fowler et al. 2020
Assess how offshore installations influence the movement of mobile organisms

Investigate the responses of mobile species (benthos, marine mammals) movement to operational OSW turbines using tracking, and active and passive acoustic monitoring, in order to better inform population models providing baseline against which to assess the population-level impacts.

Movement and Behavior, Cumulative Impacts Benthos, Marine mammals Operations & Maintenance, Decommissioning Fowler et al. 2020, Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC) 2021
Assess recolonization timelines after benthic disturbance

Better understand recolonization timelines after benthic disturbance.

Habitat Change, Displacement Benthos Construction, Operations & Maintenance Responsible Offshore Development Alliance (RODA) 2021
Assess response to OSW-related lighting

Assess potential effects (including attraction) of birds, bats, invertebrates, and fishes to lighting on wind turbines (fixed and floating, if they have different lighting requirements) and to lighting on OSW-related vessels.

Attraction, Lighting Bats, Birds, Fishes, Invertebrates Construction, Operations & Maintenance Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC) 2021, New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) 2020, Responsible Offshore Development Alliance (RODA) 2021, State of Maine 2021, WOZEP project team 2016
Assess scale of changes in species composition, biomass and abundance

Examine whether wind farms affect species composition, biomass and abundance at multiple scales (from individual wind farms to the broader region) in relation to turbine/wind farm proximity.

Population Dynamics Benthos, Fishes, Invertebrates Operations & Maintenance Massachusetts Division of Marine Fisheries 2018, New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) 2020
Assess sound from OSW activities

Evaluate acute sound conditions and effects on particle motion to understand impacts on sensitive marine life from fixed and floating OSW development and operations, including understanding of noise sources, sound propagation, substrate-borne vibroacoustic disturbances, effects of different...Read more

Evaluate acute sound conditions and effects on particle motion to understand impacts on sensitive marine life from fixed and floating OSW development and operations, including understanding of noise sources, sound propagation, substrate-borne vibroacoustic disturbances, effects of different foundation installation types, etc.

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Noise Benthos, Fishes, Invertebrates, Marine mammals, Sea turtles Pre-construction, Construction, Operations & Maintenance, Decommissioning Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM) 2022, Gulka and Williams 2020, Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC) 2021, May et al. 2017, New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) 2015, Petruny-Parker et al. 2015, Southall et al. 2021, State of Maine 2021, WOZEP project team 2016
Assess the demographic consequences of OSW development

Evaluate trends in demographics, fitness (survival, reproduction), recruitment, and abundance for populations that are regularly exposed to fixed and floating OSW stressors.

Cumulative Impacts, Population Dynamics Bats, Benthos, Birds, Ecosystem/Oceanographic processes, Fishes, Invertebrates, Marine mammals Pre-construction, Construction, Operations & Maintenance, Decommissioning Degraer et al. 2020, Fowler et al. 2020, Green et al. 2016, Gulka and Williams 2020, Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC) 2021, New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) 2020, Responsible Offshore Development Alliance (RODA) 2021, Skov et al. 2018, Southall et al. 2021, van Kooten et al. 2018, WOZEP project team 2016
Assess the effects of sounds on physiology and stress

Examine physiological changes with potential implications for fitness (such as changes in stress hormones) in relation to sound exposure

Noise, Physiology and Energetics Benthos, Fishes, Invertebrates, Marine mammals, Sea turtles Construction, Operations & Maintenance Gitschlag et al. 2021, Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC) 2021, Kraus et al. 2019, Lindeboom et al. 2015, Popper et al. 2021
Assess the importance of the areas occupied by OSW farms and potential alternatives

Develop state-of-the-art habitat models, coupled with bird observational count data to biotic and abiotic independent variables to assess potential alternatives for siting OSW development and to calculate the effects of OSW farms scenarios, including variations in the location of OWFs.

Technology/ Methods Development Birds Operations & Maintenance van Kooten et al. 2018
Assess upper trophic level benefits from increased prey availability at turbines

Assess whether changes in the underwater community (including changes in the distribution, availability and quality of prey) around turbine foundations affect the distribution, abundance, or diet of upper tropic level predators.

Diet and Food Web Dynamics, Habitat Change Birds, Marine mammals Operations & Maintenance Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC) 2021, Lindeboom et al. 2015, New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) 2020
Assess use of offshore structures as habitat

Assess use of offshore platforms and infrastructure by breeding seabirds as nesting habitat or for foraging. Tagging could be used to determine if birds using offshore structures are 1) flying through wind farms, and 2) whether their foraging is more energy efficient than coast-based birds.

Habitat Change Birds Operations & Maintenance Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC) 2021
Assess vessel strike risk from OSW activities

Evaluate relative threat of mortality/injury from vessel strikes to marine mammals and sea turtles associated with OSW and non-OSW activities, including spatiotemporal patterns in vessel traffic throughout OSW project lifecycles.

Vessel collision Marine mammals, Sea turtles Pre-construction, Construction, Operations & Maintenance, Decommissioning Gitschlag et al. 2021, Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC) 2021, New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection Office of Science 2021, Southall et al. 2021, Van Parijs et al. 2021, Wildlife Conservation Society 2021
Characterize conditions that influence ocean mixing and stratification

Understand the conditions that influence the creation and location of the Mid Atlantic Cold Pool, and by examining the dynamic nature of the formation of the Cold Pool, develop a time-dependent understanding of overlap between the Cold Pool.

Baseline, Oceanographic/Atmospheric Change Ecosystem/Oceanographic processes Pre-construction Miles et al. 2020, Miles et al. 2021
Characterize underwater sound sources

Identify and understand the acoustic frequency ranges of the sound sources that are of interest and in need of monitoring.

Baseline, Noise Marine mammals Construction, Operations & Maintenance Van Parijs et al. 2021
Collect baseline diet information

Examine diet composition of animals and primary prey species in and around OSW areas to inform understanding of the influence of changes in prey availability.

Baseline, Diet and Food Web Dynamics Bats, Benthos, Birds, Ecosystem/Oceanographic processes, Fishes, Invertebrates, Marine mammals, Sea turtles Pre-construction Cook et al. 2021, Gulka and Williams 2020, Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC) 2021, Piet et al. 2021, Southall et al. 2021
Collect baseline information about activity and movement patterns

Determine movement patterns and levels of activity, including staging and migratory patterns, non-breeding season movement, residency times, and populations connectivity, relative use of offshore environment, and variation in patterns over space and time.

Baseline, Movement and Behavior Bats, Benthos, Birds, Fishes, Marine mammals, Sea turtles Pre-construction, Construction, Operations & Maintenance, Decommissioning Allison et al. 2019, Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM) 2022, Bonacci-Sullivan 2018, Cook et al. 2021, Fowler et al. 2020, Gitschlag et al. 2021, Gulka and Williams 2020, Hein and Straw 2021, Hein et al. 2021, Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC) 2021, New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection Office of Science 2021, Solick and Newman 2021, Southall et al. 2021, WOZEP project team 2016
Collect baseline information about behavior

Monitor the baseline behavior patterns of animals in OSW areas

Baseline, Movement and Behavior Birds, Marine mammals Pre-construction, Construction Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM) 2022, Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC) 2021, Southall et al. 2021
Collect baseline information about flight patterns and height

Conduct studies to characterize baseline flight patterns and height, including nocturnal activity and the potential factors influencing these patterns.

Baseline, Movement and Behavior Bats, Birds Pre-construction, Operations & Maintenance Allison et al. 2019, Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM) 2022, Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC) 2021, New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) 2015, Skov et al. 2018
Collect baseline information about habitat use through different life stages

Assess the habitat use of animals at offshore locations during different phases of the lifecycle including breeding and non-breeding, feeding and spawning locations, etc.

Baseline, Habitat Change Bats, Benthos, Birds, Ecosystem/Oceanographic processes, Fishes, Invertebrates, Marine mammals, Sea turtles Pre-construction, Construction, Operations & Maintenance, Decommissioning Cook et al. 2021, Gitschlag et al. 2021, Gulka and Williams 2020, Hein et al. 2021, Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC) 2021, Marine Alliance for Science and Technology for Scotland 2019, Massachusetts Division of Marine Fisheries 2018, New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection Office of Science 2021, Petruny-Parker et al. 2015