Coastal flooding, already an acute problem in many parts of the world, will be exacerbated in the near future by the sea level riseinduced by climate change. The influence of wave farms, i.e., arrays of wave energy converters, on coastal processes, in particular sediment transport patterns, has been analysed in recent works; however, their influence on coastal flooding has not been addressed so far. The objective of this work is to investigate whether a wave farm can provide some protection from flooding on the coast in its lee through a case study: a gravel-dominated beach in southern Spain (Playa Granada). We consider three sea-level rise (SLR) scenarios: the present situation (SLR0), an optimistic projection (SLR1) and a pessimistic projection (SLR2). Two state-of-the-art numerical models, SWAN and XBeach-G, are applied to determine the wave propagation patterns, total run-up and flooded dry beach area. The results indicate that the absorption of wave power by the wave farm affects wave propagation in its lee and, in particular, wave heights, with alongshore-averaged reductions in breaking wave heights about 10% (25%) under westerly (easterly) storms. These lower significant wave heights, in turn, result in alongshore-averaged run-up reductions for the three scenarios, which decreases with increasing SLR values from 5.9% (6.8%) to 1.5% (5.1%) for western (eastern) storms. Importantly, the dry beach area flooded under westerly (easterly) storms is also reduced by 5.7% (3.2%), 3.3% (4.9%) and 1.99% (4.5%) in scenarios SLR0, SLR1 and SLR2, respectively. These findings prove that a wave farm can actually reduce coastal flooding on its leeward coast.
Wave farm impacts on coastal flooding under sea-level rise: A case study in southern Spain
Title: Wave farm impacts on coastal flooding under sea-level rise: A case study in southern Spain
February 25, 2019
Journal: Science of The Total Environment
Publisher: Elsevier Ltd.
Bergillos, R.; Rodriguez-Delgado, C.; Iglesias, G. (2019). Wave farm impacts on coastal flooding under sea-level rise: A case study in southern Spain. Science of The Total Environment, 653, 1522-1531.