This study examines a model that would determine wind farms environmental effects and how they can also benefit the marine environment. While wind farms can cause damage to avian groups, they can also create artificial reefs. However, this model also accounts for economic impacts and spatial effects. The goal is to show choices made in spatial planning of offshore wind sites as well as the potential of the model in analyzing real problems. The model is applied to the Dutch EEZ.
To build a model of the economic and ecological aspects of wind farms, the drivers behind them are identified. Meaning, the relationships between the economic factors of energy consumption and environmental effects must be defined. Different locations in the Dutch EEZ yield differing results when it comes to environmental impacts and spatial planning. Wind farm locations contain specific trade-offs between revenues, costs, and species. Ultimately, more research is needed to further understand spatial differences in offshore wind farms.