The Hammerfest Strøm tidal project was installed in Kvalsund in Finnmark county, Norway, at a 50m depth in the sound between Kvalsund and Kvaløya. The HS300 horizontal axis turbine device was installed in 2003, and grid connected in 2004 which made it the world's first tidal turbine delivering to the grid. The submerged structure weighed 120 tonnes and had gravity footings of 200 tonnes. Its three-bladed turbine was made in glass fibre-reinforced plastic and measured 10 metres from hub to tip. The device rotated at 7 rpm with an installed capacity of 0.3 MW.
Kvalsund, Finnmark, Norway
Hammerfest Strøm AS holds the consent to the site, given by the Norwegian Water Resource and Energy Directorate (NVE) for a 25 years period from 2001-2026. The trading license, hold by Hammerfest Strøm AS, was given in 2002 and need to be renewed every 4th year. The grid owner in the installation area is Hammerfest Energi AS.
The HS300 device was installed at site in 2003, and became the world’s first tidal turbine of its kind to deliver electricity to grid in 2004. It was designed for a 3 years test period, and was retrieved after about 4 years of testing. All general components were in good shape, and the turbine was reinstalled in 2009 for further testing which was completed in 2011. The tidal turbine was retrieved in 2012.
The HS300 prototype was in operation for more than 17,000 hours, delivering over 1.5 GWh to the grid and showed 98% availability during testing, proving the device to be efficient and reliable.
The HS300 formed the basis of Andritz Hydro’s pre-commercial 1 MW HS1000 turbine technology, which was installed at the European Marine Energy Centre (EMEC) and delivered its first energy to the grid in February 2012.
Based on the learning gained during its testing period at EMEC, Andritz Hydro Hammerfest has developed 1.5 MW MK1 turbines, three of which have been installed as part of the MeyGen project in the Pentland Firth.
Key Environmental Issues
A third party has been involved in the project since 2001. The chosen contractor has done several studies in the area earlier and has good knowledge of the location. The first study of the site was undertaken in 2001, before the prototype was installed at the site. The Company engaged the contractor to evaluate the site a second time when the HS300 turbine was retrieved for verification and again when it was redeployed at the site.
The EIA covered the potential impact the tidal turbine has on the business activities, outdoor life, marine life and seabirds, where it among other tests has been done a noise measurement. The EIA concluded that the HS300 turbine has no or insignificant impact on the studied areas.
- Systad, G.; Aas-Hansen, Ø.; Bustnes, J.; Bjørn, P. (2005). Pilot Installation of Tidal Current Turbine in Kvalsundet, Tromsø County, Norway - Status and Possible Consequences for the Environment. Report by Norwegian Institute for Nature Research (NINA). pp 29.
Baseline Assessment: Kvalsund Tidal Turbine Prototype
|Receptor||Study Description||Design and Methods||Results||Status|
|Marine Mammals||Survey of species in the area.||Observational survey.||Low numbers of marine mammals expected.||Completed 2008|
|Fish||Species in the area.||Typical species behavior has been studied for areas like Kvalsundet.||Anadromous fish might be present year round. No physical impact to anadromous salmonids expected. No or insignificant negative effect on marine fish stock. ||Completed 2009|
|Birds||Species and behavior in the area||Observational survey. Earlier studies were used as source for the study||Both diving and non-diving seabirds are seen in the area.||Completed 2008|
|Physical Environment||Water velocity study.||Measurement of water velocities.||Max velocity 2.5 m/s; no changes in current speed or pattern along the shores due to the turbine are expected. ||Completed 1997|
|Physical Environment||Marine growth/biofouling study.||Observations of marine growth on turbine structures.||Mechanical scrape off of attached algae and invertebrates estimates to be negligible and insignificant.||Completed 2009|
|Physical Environment||Shore ecology study.||Identification of benthos close to shore and which algae and animals are typical for the area.||Not unique and is considered to have medium value.||Completed 2001, 2010|
|Physical Environment||Seabed Study.||Used ROV to film the seabed and map under water conditions in the area.||Gravel and stone. Not unique and is considered to have medium value.||Conducted in 2000|
|Physical Environment||Seabed survey and turbine impact to habitat.||Used ROV to film the seabed and map under water conditions in the area.||No significant changes.||Conducted 2007 and 2009|
|Physical Environment||Acoustical measurements of seabed||Acoustical measurements.||Hard rock seabed.||Completed in 2000|
|Human Dimensions, Recreation & Tourism||Use of area, outdoor life and business activities||Review of literature and interviews.||Little or no or significant impact||Completed 2009|
Post-Installation Monitoring: Kvalsund Tidal Turbine Prototype
|Stressor||Receptor||Study Description||Design and Methods||Results||Status|
|Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change||Marine Mammals||Potential impact on sea mammals in the area.||Observation survey.||Too few mammals recorded to draw any conclusions.||Completed 2009|
|Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change||Birds||Potential impact on seabirds in the area.||Observation survey,||No indication of negative impact.||Completed 2009|
|Changes in Flow||Physical Environment||Water velocity study.||Measurements during operation using a turbine mounted instrument. Vessel mounted instrument used to measure the turbine wake.||Tidal velocity results not publicly available.||Completed 2003-2007, 2009-2011|
|Habitat Change||Physical Environment||Marine growth/biofouling studies.||Measurements during retrieval of marine growth/biofouling on turbine blades.||Fouling of rotor blades occurred. No anti-fouling compounds had been used. Mechanical scrape off of attached algae and invertebrates estimates to be negligible and insignificant.||Completed 2007|
|Noise||Physical Environment||Underwater sound measurements.||Measure the radiated underwater noise from the turbine||Results give no concern, low noise impact.||Undertaken 2009|
|Noise||Marine Mammals||Potential impact on sea mammals in the area.||Underwater measurements and comparison with marine mammal hearing ability and sensitivity to underwater noise.||Impact of noise insignificant.||Completed 2010|
|Noise||Fish||Potential impact on fish in the area.||Underwater measurements and comparison with fish hearing ability and sensitivity to underwater noise.||No concern to any kind of fish species.||Completed 2010|