Knowledge Base

The Knowledge Base provides access to information about the environmental effects of marine and wind energy, supporting Annex IV and WREN initiatives. Relevant documents and Annex IV metadata forms are compiled into a user-friendly table with advanced filtering. Filters may be selected on the right, or keywords entered in the Search Text box. Content may also be sorted alphabetically by clicking on column headers. More entries will load as you scroll down.


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Title Author* Date**sort ascending Type of Content Technology Types Stressors Receptors
Calculation of the Probability of a Collision of Territorial Birds of Prey with Wind Turbines Rasran, L., Grajetzky, B., Mammen, U. April 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Population Development and Breeding Success of Birds of Prey in Relation to the Development of Wind Energy Use in Germany Rasran, L., Mammen, U. April 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Raptors
Conclusions, Risk Assessment, Conflict Minimisation, Practical Recommendations, Need for Further Research Hötker, H., et al. April 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
Birds of Prey and Wind Farms Hötker, H., Krone, O., Nehls, G. April 2017 Book Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
Greater Sage-Grouse Habitat Selection, Survival, and Wind Energy Infrastructure LeBeau, C., et al. April 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds
Towards a Framework for Quantifying the Population-Level Consequences of Anthropogenic Pressures on the Environment: The Case of Seabirds and Windfarms Cook, A., Robinson, R. April 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds
Golden Eagle Fatalities and the Continental-Scale Consequences of Local Wind-Energy Generation Katzner, T., et al. April 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
A Well-Being Framework for Impact Evaluation: The Case of the UK Offshore Wind Industry Hattam, C., Hooper, T., Papathanasopoulou, E. April 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Recreational Use of Offshore Wind Farms: Experiences and Opinions of Sea Anglers in the UK Hooper, T., Hattam, C., Austen, M. April 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Socio-economics, Recreation
The Implications of Energy Systems for Ecosystem Services: A Detailed Case Study of Offshore Wind Hooper, T., Beaumont, N., Hattam, C. April 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Ecosystem
Monitoring of wintering geese in the AES Geo Energy Wind Farm "St. Nikola" territory and the Kaliakra region in winter 2016/2017 Zehtindjiev, P., Whitfield, P. April 2017 Report Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Waterfowl
Renewable energy and biodiversity: Implications for transitioning to a Green Economy Gasparatos, A., et al. April 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general N/A Ecosystem
Nocturnal migrants do not incur higher collision risk at wind turbines than diurnally active species Welcker, J., et al. April 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Assessing larval connectivity for marine spatial planning in the Adriatic Bray, L., Kassis, D., Hall-Spencer, J. April 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Socio-economics, Marine Spatial Planning
Impact on seabirds of new offshore wind energy test and demonstration projects in the Biscay Marine Energy Platform (BiMEP, N. Spain) Bald, J., et al. March 2017 Presentation Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds
Bat Flight Analysis around Wind Turbines - A Feasibility Study Lagerveld, S., et al. March 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Bats
Report of the IWG on Wind Turbines and Bat Populations 2017 Rodrigues, L. March 2017 Conference Paper Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
Marine Protected Areas and Offshore Wind Farms Sanders, N., Haynes, T., Goriup, P. March 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Greater sage‐grouse male lek counts relative to a wind energy development LeBeau, C., et al. March 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds
Climate Change, Wind Energy, and Conservation: A Survey of Conflicting Issues Bauman, D. March 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Distribution, Nesting Activities, and Age-Class of Territorial Pairs of Golden Eagles at the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area, California, 2014-16 Kolar, P., Wiens, J. March 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
Review of Methods and Techniques for Field Validation of Collision Rates and Avoidance Amongst Birds and Bats at Offshore Wind Turbines Dirksen, S. March 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Reducing Bat Fatalities at Wind Facilities while Improving the Economic Efficiency of Operational Mitigation Martin, C., et al. March 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Socio-economics
Bat 1: Estimate of bat populations at the southern North Sea - Supporting note to ZDV report no. 2016.031 Migrating bats at the southern North Sea Lagerveld, S., et al. March 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds
Appendix E-1 LimnoTech Report - Results of 2016 Aquatic Sampling LimnoTech March 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Fish
Verreauxs' Eagle and Wind Farms: Guidelines for Impact Assessment, Monitoring, and Mitigation BirdLife South Africa March 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
A modelling framework to predict bat activity patterns on wind farms: An outline of possible applications on mountain ridges of North Portugal Silva, C., et al. March 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Bats
Current and Wave Effects around Windfarm Monopile Foundations Miles, J., Martin, T, Goddard, L March 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device N/A
A New Model for Environmental and Economic Evaluation of Renewable Energy Systems: The Case of Wind Turbines Savino, M., et al. March 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Farfield Environment, Socio-economics, Life Cycle Assessment
Improving Efficiencies of National Environmental Policy Act Documentation for Offshore Wind Facilities - Case Studies Report English, P., et al. March 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
A Sound Approach to Assessing the Impact of Underwater Noise on Marine Fishes and Invertebrates Hawkins, A., Popper, A. March 2017 Journal Article N/A Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Fish
Sustainable Decommissioning of an Offshore Wind Farm Topham, E., McMillan, D. March 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics
Maritime Route Delineation using AIS Data from the Atlantic Coast of the US Breithaupt, S., et al. March 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Navigation
Observing Cable Laying and Particle Settlement During the Construction of the Block Island Wind Farm James, E., et al. March 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device N/A
An Assessment of the Economic Potential of Offshore Wind in the United States from 2015 to 2030 Beiter, P., et al. March 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Migrating bats at the southern North Sea: Approach to an estimation of migration populations of bats at the southern North Sea Limpens, H., et al. March 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Bats
Norfolk Boreas Offshore Wind Farm Environmental Impact Assessment Scoping Report Royal Haskoning March 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
The Effects of Sex, Energy, and Environmental Conditions on the Movement Ecology of Migratory Bats Jonassan, K. March 2017 Thesis Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Spoiled darkness? Sense of place and annoyance over obstruction lights from the world’s largest wind turbine test centre in Denmark Rudolph, D., et al. March 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Lighting Socio-economics, Aesthetics, Stakeholder Engagement
Comparing Bird And Bat Data For New Wind Power Generation Smallwood, S., Neher, L. March 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Telemetry for migratory bats - a feasibility study Lagerveld, S., et al. February 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Bats
Quantifying the Demographic Cost of Human-Related Mortality to a Raptor Population Hunt, W., et al. February 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Impact of wind turbines on bat activity: an ommited long-distance concern Barre, K., et al. February 2017 Presentation Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
A balanced solution to the cumulative threat of industrialized wind farm development on cinereous vultures (Aegypius monachus) in south-eastern Europe Vasilakis, D., Whitfield, D., Kati, V. February 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Is There a State-of-the-Art to Reduce Pile-Driving Noise? Bellmann, M., et al. February 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
Bird Mortality in Two Dutch Wind Farms: Effects of Location, Spatial Design and Interactions with Powerlines Brenninkmeijer, A., Klop, E. February 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Bat Activity at Nacelle Height Over Forest Reers, H., et al. February 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general N/A Bats
A Method to Assess the Population-Level Consequences of Wind Energy Facilities on Bird and Bat Species Diffendorfer, J., et al. February 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general N/A Bats, Birds
A Large-Scale, Multispecies Assessment of Avian Mortality Rates at Land-Based Wind Turbines in Northern Germany Grunkorn, T., et al. February 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Unforeseen Responses of a Breeding Seabird to the Construction of an Offshore Wind Farm Harwood, A., et al. February 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds, Seabirds
Sharing Information on Environmental Effects of Wind Energy Development: WREN Hub Copping, A., Hanna, L., Whiting, J. February 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general N/A N/A
Future Research Directions to Reconcile Wind Turbine - Wildlife Interactions May, R., et al. February 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general N/A N/A
Wind Turbines and Birds in Germany - Examples of Current Knowledge, New Insights and Remaining Gaps Reichenbach, M. February 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general N/A Birds
A Framework for Assessing Ecological and Cumulative Effects (FAECE) of Offshore Wind Farms on Birds, Bats and Marine Mammals in the Southern North Sea Platteeuw, M., et al. February 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Bats, Birds, Marine Mammals
Introducing a New Avian Sensitivity Mapping Tool to Support the Siting of Wind Farms and Power Lines in the Middle East and Northeast Africa Allinson, T. February 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Wind Farms in Areas of High Ornithological Value - Conflicts, Solutions, Challenges: The Case of Thrace, Greece Kafetzis, A., et al. February 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
The Challenges of Addressing Wildlife Impacts When Repowering Wind Energy Projects Smallwood, K. February 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Birds
Red Kites and Wind Farms - Telemetry Data from the Core Breeding Range Hötker, H., et al. February 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Birds, Passerines
Mitigating Bat Mortality with Turbine-Specific Curtailment Algorithms: A Model Based Approach Behr, O., et al. February 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Bats
Radar Assisted Shutdown on Demand Ensures Zero Soaring Bird Mortality at a Wind Farm Located in a Migratory Flyway Tomé, R., et al. February 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Birds
Landscape-Scale Effects of Single- and Multiple Small Wind Turbines on Bat Activity Minderman, J., et al. February 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Mobile Demersal Megafauna at Common Offshore Wind Turbine Foundations in the German Bight (North Sea) Two Years after Deployment - Increased Production Rate of Cancer pagurus Krone, R., et al. February 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates
Siting and Designing Wind Farms in the Landscape - Version 3 Scottish Natural Heritage February 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Socio-economics, Aesthetics
A Spatial Explicit Agent Based Model Approach to Evaluate the Performance of Different Monitoring Options for Mortality Estimates in the Scope of Onshore Windfarm Impact Assessments Santos, M., et al. February 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
A Bridge Between Oceans: Overland Migration of Marine Birds in a Wind Energy Corridor Lamb, J., et al. February 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds
Visual Representation of Wind Farms - Version 2.2 N/A February 2017 Report Wind Energy general N/A Socio-economics, Aesthetics
Stakeholder Outcomes in a Wind Turbine Investment; Is the Irish Energy Policy Effective in Reducing GHG Emissions by Promoting Small-Scale Embedded Turbines in SME's? Kealy, T. February 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Socio-economics, Climate Change, Stakeholder Engagement
Seabird Distribution and Abundance in the Offshore Environment Final Report Kuletz, K., Labunski, E. February 2017 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds
Passive Acoustic Methods for Fine-Scale Tracking of Harbour Porpoises in Tidal Rapids Macaulay, J., et al. February 2017 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Draft Bat Monitoring Studies at the Fowler Ridge Wind Farm Benton County, Indiana: August 3 - Octoboer 12, 2016 Good, R., et al. January 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Appendix I Aquatic Ecological Resource Characterization and Impact Assessment LimnoTech January 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Ecosystem, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Appendix J WEST NEXRAD Analysis: Assessment of Nocturnal Bird Migration Activity from Weather Radar Data for the Proposed Icebreaker Wind Energy Facility, Lake Erie, Ohio Nations, C., Gordon, C. January 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Wind Energy’s Impacts on Birds in South Africa: A Preliminary Review of the Results of Operational Monitoring at the First Wind Farms of the Renewable Energy Independent Power Producer Procurement Programme in South Africa Ralston-Paton, S., et al. January 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Status of herpatofaunal diversity of Ramagiri east and west reserve forests of Ananthapuramu district, Andhra Pradesh Subramanyam, B., Khan, I., Kumari, K. January 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
NWCC Webinar Series National Wind Coordinating Collaborative January 2017 Website Wind Energy general N/A N/A
From Social 'Acceptance' to Social 'Acceptability' of Wind Energy Projects: Towards a Territorial Perspective Fournis, Y., Fotrin, M. January 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Socio-economics, Stakeholder Engagement
Possible Impacts of Offshore Wind Farms on Seabirds: A Pilot Study in Northern Gannets in the Southern North Sea Garthe, S., Markones, N., Corman, A. January 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds
Tafila Region Wind Power Projects: Cumulative Effects Assessment International Finance Corporation January 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Farfield Environment
Application of Reanalysis Data to Estimate Offshore Wind Potential in EEZ of India Based on Marine Ecosystem Considerations Nagababu, G., et al. January 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Ecosystem
Determining Fine-Scale Use and Movement Patterns of Diving Bird Species in Federal Waters of the Mid-Atlantic United States Using Satellite Telemetry Spiegel, C., et al. January 2017 Report N/A N/A Birds, Seabirds
Benthic and Fish Aggregation Inside an Offshore Wind Farm: Which Effects on the Trophic Web Functioning? Raoux, A., et al. January 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Ecosystem
Wind Energy Scenarios for the Simulation of the German Power System Until 2050: The Effect of Social and Ecological Factors Christ, M., et al. January 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Farfield Environment, Socio-economics
No Evidence for Displacement of Wintering Red-breasted Geese Branta ruficollis (Pallas, 1769) (Anseriformes) at a Wind Farms Area in Northeast Bulgaria: Long-term Monitoring Results Zahtindjiev, P., et al. January 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Waterfowl
Effects of Wind Turbines on Spatial Distribution of the European Hamster Łopucki, R., Perzanowski, K. January 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Terrestrial Mammals
Comparing Pre- Versus Postoperational Movement of Nocturnal Migrants around a Wind Energy Facility in Northeast British Columbia, Canada d'Entremont, M., Hartley, I., Otter, K. January 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Wind Energy and Wildlife Interactions Köppel, J. January 2017 Book Wind Energy general N/A N/A
Socio-Economic Impact of Outer Continental Shelf Wind Energy Development on Fisheries in the US Atlantic: Volume I - Report Narrative Kirkpatrick, A., et al. January 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Fishing
Socio-Economic Impact of Outer Continental Shelf Wind Energy Development on Fisheries in the US Atlantic: Volume II - Appendices Kirkpatrick, A., et al. January 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Fishing
Hen Harrier Circus cyaneus population trends in relation to wind farms Wilson, M., et al. January 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Raptors
Reducing Wind Curtailment through Transmission Expansion in a Wind Vision Future Jorgenson, J., Mai, T., Brinkman, G. January 2017 Report Wind Energy general N/A Socio-economics
Potential impacts of artificial reef development on sea turtle conservation in Florida Barnette, M. January 2017 Report N/A Static Device Nearfield Habitat, Sea Turtles
Estimation of bird fatalities caused by wind turbines in Turkey Arikan, K., Turan, S. January 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Guidelines for Consideration of Bats in Environmental Impact Assessment of Wind Farms in Brazil: A Collaborative Governance Experience from Rio Grande Do Sul State Bernard, E., et al. January 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
The Effect of Simulated Seal Scarer Sounds on Harbour Porpoises Hermannsen, L., Mikkelsen, L., Tougaard, J. January 2017 Report Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Pinnipeds
The influence of high-voltage power lines on the feelings evoked by different Swiss surroundings Lienert, P., Sütterlin, B., Siegrist, M. January 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Socio-economics, Aesthetics
Stakeholder empowerment through participatory planning practices: The case of electricity transmission lines in France and Norway Späth, L., Scolobig, A. January 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Socio-economics, Aesthetics, Stakeholder Engagement
Meteorological and Hydrological Effect of Wind Farm in Arid Areas Yin, R., et al. January 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Energy Removal Ecosystem
DTBird System Pilot Installation in Sweden. Possibilities for Bird Monitoring Systems around Wind Farms. Experiences from Sweden's First DTBird Installation Litsgård, F., et al. December 2016 Report Wind Energy general N/A Birds
Thanet Extension Offshore Wind Farm Environmental Impact Assessment Report to Inform Scoping Royal Haskoning December 2016 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Assessment of Displacement Impacts of Offshore Windfarms and Other Human Activities on Red-Throated Divers and Alcids McGovern, S., Goddard, B., Rehfisch, M. December 2016 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds

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