Knowledge Base

The Knowledge Base provides access to information about the environmental effects of marine and wind energy, supporting OES-Environmental and WREN initiatives. Relevant documents and OES-Environmental metadata forms are compiled into a user-friendly table with advanced filtering. Filters may be selected on the right, or keywords entered in the Search Text box. Content may also be sorted alphabetically by clicking on column headers. More entries will load as you scroll down.


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Title Author* Date** Type of Content Technology Types Stressors Receptorssort descending
Techniques for Cetacean-Habitat Modeling Redfern, J., et al. April 2006 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Temporary Shift in Masked Hearing Thresholds in Odontocetes After Exposure to Single Underwater Impulses from a Seismic Watergun Finneran, J., et al. March 2002 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
The Impacts Of Anthropogenic Ocean Noise On Cetaceans And Implications For Management Weilgart, L. December 2007 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Towards Best Environmental Practice for Cetacean Conservation in Developing Scotland's Marine Renewable Energy Dolman, S., Simmonds, M. September 2010 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Underwater Noise of Whale Watching Boats and Potential Effects on Killer Whales (Orcinus orca), Based on an Acoustic Impact Model Erbe, C. April 2002 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Using Geographic Information Systems to Predict North Atlantic Right Whale (Eubalaena glacialis) Habitat Moses, E., Finn, J. December 1997 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Status of Marine Mammals in Korea Song, K. April 2014 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
200 kHz Commercial Sonar Systems Generate Lower Frequency Side Lobes Audible to Some Marine Mammals Deng, Z., et al. April 2014 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Impacts of Offshore Wind Farm Construction on Harbour Porpoises: Acoustic Monitoring of Echolocation Activity using Porpoise Detectors (T-PODs) Carstensen, J., Henriksen, O., Teilmann, J. January 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise, Static Device Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Evidence of a Lombard Response in Migrating Humpback Whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) Dunlop, R., Cato, D., Noad, M. May 2014 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Effects of Offshore Pile Driving on Harbor Porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) Brandt, M., et al. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Responses of Cetaceans to Anthropogenic Noise Nowacek, D., et al. April 2007 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Influences of Man-Made Noise and Other Human Actions on Cetacean Behaviour Richardson, W., Würsig, B. January 1997 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Assessing the Underwater Acoustics of the World's Largest Vibration Hammer (OCTA-KONG) and Its Potential Effects on the Indo-Pacific Humpbacked Dolphin (Sousa chinensis) Wang, Z., et al. October 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Patterns of Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Humpback Whales at the Southern Limit of the Southeast Pacific Breeding Area Guidino, C., et al. November 2014 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Methodology and Results of Calibration of Tonal Click Detectors for Small Odontocetes (C-PODs) Dähne, M., et al. September 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Temporary Shift in Masked Hearing Thresholds in a Harbor Porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) after Exposure to Seismic Airgun Stimuli Lucke, K., et al. June 2009 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Cetacean Stock Assessments in Relation to Exploration and Production Industry Activity and Other Human Pressures: Review and Data Needs Thomsen, F., et al. February 2011 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Cetacean Noise Criteria Revisited in the Light of Proposed Exposure Limits for Harbour Porpoises Tougaard, J., Wright, A., Madsen, P. January 2015 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Integrating Passive Acoustic and Visual Data to Model Spatial Patterns of Occurrence in Coastal Dolphins Thompson, P., Brookes, K., Cordes, L. April 2015 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Passive Acoustic Monitoring the Diel, Lunar, Seasonal and Tidal Patterns in the Biosonar Activity of the Indo-Pacific Humpback Dolphins (Sousa chinensis) in the Pearl River Estuary, China Wang, Z., et al. November 2015 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Evidence that Fin Whales Respond to the Geomagnetic Field During Migration Walker, M., et al. July 1992 Journal Article N/A EMF Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Habitat Preferences and Interannual Variability in Occurrence of the Harbour Porpoise Phocoena phocoena off Northwest Scotland Marubini, F., et al. April 2009 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Using Habitat Models to Identify Suitable Sites for Marine Protected Areas for Harbour Porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) Embling, C., et al. February 2010 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Habitat Preferences and Distribution of the Harbour Porpoise Phocoena phocoena West of Scotland Booth, C., et al. March 2013 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Understanding the Impacts of Anthropogenic Sound on Beaked Whales Cox, T., et al. January 2006 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Locomotor design of dolphin vertebral columns: bending mechanics and morphology of Delphinus delphis Long, J., et al. January 1997 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Passive Acoustic Methods for Fine-Scale Tracking of Harbour Porpoises in Tidal Rapids Macaulay, J., et al. February 2017 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Has Designating and Protecting Critical Habitat had an Impact on Endangered North Atlantic Right Whale Ship Strike Mortality? Mullen, K., Peterson, M., Todd, S. November 2013 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Combining Passive Acoustics and Imaging Sonar Techniques to Study Sperm Whales' Foraging Strategies Giorli, G. September 2017 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Broad-Scale Acoustic Monitoring for Cetaceans and Underwater Noise in Relation to Offshore Wind Farm Construction in Scotland Brookes, K., et al. June 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Variation of ocean acoustic environments along the western North Atlantic coast: A case study in context of the right whale migration route Rice, A., et al. May 2014 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Estimating cetacean density and abundance in the Central and Western Mediterranean Sea through aerial surveys: Implications for management Panigada, S., et al. July 2017 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Underwater noise levels of pile-driving in a New Zealand harbour, and the potential impacts on endangered Hector's dolphins Leunissen, E., Dawson, S. October 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Whale-call response to masking boat noise Foote, A., Osborne, R., Hoelzel, R. April 2004 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Individual right whales call louder in increased environmental noise Parks, S., et al. April 2010 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Short- and long-term changes in right whale calling behavior: The potential effects of noise on acoustic communication Parks, S., Clark, C. December 2007 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Development of an air bubble curtain to reduce underwater noise of percussive piling Würsig, B., Greene, C., Jefferson, T. February 2000 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Low-frequency acoustic pressure, velocity, and intensity thresholds in a bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) and white whale (Delphinapterus leucas) Finneran, J., Carder, D., Ridgway, S. January 2002 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Potential Benefits of Vessel Slowdowns on Endangered Southern Resident Killer Whales Joy, R., et al. June 2019 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Monitoring of Marine Mammal Strandings Along French Coasts Reveals the Importance of Ship Strikes on Large Cetaceans: A Challenge for the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive Peltier, H., et al. July 2019 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Social structure and abundance of coastal bottlenose dolphins, Tursiops truncatus, in the Normano-Breton Gulf, English Channel Louis, M., et al. May 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Feeding home ranges of pacific coast feeding group gray whales Lagerquist, B., et al. February 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Impact of pile-driving on Hector's dolphin in Lyttelton Harbour, New Zealand Leunissen, E., Rayment, W., Dawson, S. May 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Soundscape of an Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin (Sousa chinensis) hotspot before windfarm construction in the Pearl River Estuary, China: Do dolphin engage in noise avoidance and passive eavesdropping behavior? Wang, Z., et al. March 2019 Journal Article Offshore Wind Avoidance, Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Responses of bottlenose dolphins and harbor porpoises to impact and vibration piling noise during harbor construction Graham, I., et al. May 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Behavioral responses of minke whales (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) to experimental fishing gear in a coastal environment Kot, B., et al. February 2012 Journal Article N/A Avoidance Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Whale Entanglements With Submarine Telecommunication Cables Wood, M., Carter, L. October 2008 Journal Article Marine Energy (General) Entrapment Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Whales entangled in deep sea cables Heezen, B. January 1957 Journal Article N/A Entrapment Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Towards a Numerical Model to Simulate the Observed Displacement of Harbour Porpoises Phocoena phocoena Due to Pile Driving in Belgian Waters Haelters, J., et al. September 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Displacement, Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Short-Term Disturbance by a Commercial Two-Dimensional Seismic Survey does Not Lead to Long-Term Displacement of Harbour Porpoises Thompson, P., et al. November 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Displacement, Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Modelling the Biological Significance of Behavioural Change in Coastal Bottlenose Dolphins in Response to Disturbance New, L., et al. April 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
North Atlantic right whale Eubalaena glacialis occurrence in offshore wind energy areas near Massachusetts and Rhode Island, USA Leiter, S., et al. July 2017 Journal Article Offshore Wind N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Negative Long Term Effects on Harbour Porpoises from a Large Scale Offshore Wind Farm in the Baltic - Evidence of Slow Recovery Teilmann, J., Carstensen, J. December 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Getting it Right for the North Atlantic Right Whale (Eubalaena glacialis): A Last Opportunity for Effective Marine Spatial Planning? Petruny, L., Wright, A., Smith, C. August 2014 Journal Article N/A Habitat Change Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning, Navigation
North Atlantic Right Whales (Eubalaena glacialis) Ignore Ships but Respond to Alerting Stimuli Nowacek, D., Johnson, M., Tyack, P. February 2004 Journal Article N/A Attraction, Collision, Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Human Dimensions, Navigation
Marine Mammal Noise Exposure Criteria: Initial Scientific Recommendations Southall, B., et al. December 2007 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Pinnipeds
Marine Megavertebrates of Cornwall and the Isles of Scilly: Relative Abundance and Distribution Leeney, R., et al. December 2012 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Pinnipeds
Behavioral Responses and Habituation of Pinnipeds and Small Cetaceans to Novel Objects and Simulated Fishing Gear With and Without a Pinger Bowles, A., Anderson, C. January 2012 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Pinnipeds
Criteria and Case Definitions for Serious Injury and Death of Pinnipeds and Cetaceans Caused by Anthropogenic Trauma Moore, M., et al. April 2013 Journal Article N/A Dynamic Device, Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Pinnipeds
Calculating Limits to the Allowable Human-Caused Mortality of Cetaceans and Pinnipeds Wade, P. January 1998 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Pinnipeds
Absolute Probability Estimates of Lethal Vessel Strikes to North Atlantic Right Whales in Roseway Basin, Scotian Shelf van der Hoop, J., Vanderlaan, A., Taggart, C. April 2012 Journal Article N/A Dynamic Device Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Socio-economics, Navigation
Gross and Histologic Evidence of Sharp and Blunt Trauma in North Atlantic Right Whales (Eubalaena glacialis) Killed by Vessels Campbell-Malone, R., et al. March 2008 Journal Article N/A Dynamic Device Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Socio-economics, Navigation
Hydrodynamics of a Ship/Whale Collision Silber, G., Slutsky, J., Bettridge, S. May 2010 Journal Article N/A Dynamic Device Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Socio-economics, Navigation
Vessel Collisions with Whales: The Probability of Lethal Injury Based on Vessel Speed Vanderlaan, A., Taggart, C. January 2007 Journal Article N/A Dynamic Device Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Socio-economics, Navigation
Vessel Noise Effects On Delphinid Communication Jensen, F., et al. January 2009 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Socio-economics, Navigation
Behavioural Reactions of Free-Ranging Porpoises and Seals to the Noise of a Simulated 2 MW Windpower Generator Koschinski, S., et al. December 2003 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Framework for Assessing Impacts of Pile-Driving Noise from Offshore Wind Farm Construction on a Harbour Seal Population Thomson, P., et al. November 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Low-Frequency Amphibious Hearing in Pinnipeds: Methods, Measurements, Noise, and Ecology Schusterman, R., Kastak, D. January 1998 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Masking in Three Pinnipeds: Underwater, Low-Frequency Critical Ratios Southall, B., Schusterman, R., Kastak, D. June 2000 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Seascapes of Fear: Evaluating Sublethal Predator Effects Experienced and Generated by Marine Mammals Wirsing, A., et al. January 2008 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
The Effect of a Large Danish Offshore Wind Farm on Harbor and Gray Seal Haul-Out Behavior Edrén, S., et al. July 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Underwater Noise From Three Types Of Offshore Wind Turbines: Estimation Of Impact Zones For Harbor Porpoises And Harbor Seals Tougaard, J., Henriksen, O., Miller, L. January 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Underwater Detection of Tonal Signals Between 0.125 and 100 kHz by Harbor Seals (Phoca vitulina) Kastelein, R., et al. November 2008 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Hearing Threshold Shifts and Recovery in Harbor Seals (Phoca vitulina) after Octave-Band Noise Exposure at 4 kHz Kastelein, R., et al. July 2012 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
The Effect of Signal Duration on the Underwater Hearing Thresholds of Two Harbor Seals (Phoca vitulina) for Single Tonal Signals Between 0.2 and 40 kHz Kastelein, R., et al. December 2009 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Underwater Hearing Sensitivity of Harbor Seals (Phoca vitulina) for Narrow Noise Bands Between 0.2 and 80 kHz Kastelein, R., et al. April 2009 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Effects of Underwater Sounds on Escape Behavior of Steller Sea Lions Akamatsu, T., et al. January 1996 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Behavioural Responses of Harbour Seals to Human-Induced Disturbances Andersen, S., et al. January 2012 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Underwater Auditory Localization by a Swimming Harbor Seal (Phoca vitulina) Bodson, A., et al. January 2006 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Escape Responses of Hauled out Ringed Seals (Phoca hispida) to Aircraft Disturbance Born, E., et al. February 1999 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Aversiveness of Sounds in Phocid Seals: Psycho-Physiological Factors, Learning Processes and Motivation Götz, T., Janik, V. January 2010 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Basic Mechanisms in Pinniped Vision Hanke, F., et al. December 2009 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Variability in Reactions of Pacific Harbor Seals, Phoca vitulina richardsi, to Disturbance Suryan, R., Harvey, J. May 1999 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Source Levels of the Underwater Calls of a Male Leopard Seal Rogers, T. October 2014 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Grey Seals use Anthropogenic Signals from Acoustic Tags to Locate Fish: Evidence from a Simulated Foraging Task Stansbury, A., et al. January 2015 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Modelling Harbour Seal Habitat by Combining Data from Multiple Tracking Bailey, H., Hammond, P., Thompson, P. January 2014 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Far-Reaching Effects of a Seal Scarer on Harbour Porpoises, Phocoena phocoena Brandt, M., et al. April 2013 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Hearing Thresholds of Harbor Seals (Phoca vitulina) for Playbacks of Seal Scarer Signals, and Effects of the Signals on Behavior Kastelein, R., et al. September 2015 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Likely Effects of Construction of Scroby Sands Offshore Wind Farm on a Mixed Population of Harbour Phoca vitulina and Grey Halichoerus grypus Seals Skeate, E., Perrow, M., Gilroy, J. April 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Sound Exposure in Harbour Seals During the Installation of an Offshore Wind Farm: Predictions of Auditory Damage Hastie, G., et al. June 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Estimating Harbour Seal Abundance and Status in an Estuarine Habitat in North-East Scotland Thompson, P., et al. February 1997 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Geographical Variation in Temporal and Spatial Vocalization Patterns of Male Harbour Seals in the Mating Season Van Parijs, S., Hastie, G., Thompson, P. December 1999 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Use of Anthropogenic Sea Floor Structures by Australian Fur Seals: Potential Positive Ecological Impacts of Marine Industrial Development? Arnould, J., et al. July 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Auditory and Behavioral Responses of California Sea Lions (Zalophus californianus) to Single Underwater Impulses from an Arc-Gap Transducer Finneran, J., et al. August 2003 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Hydrodynamic Trail-Following in Harbor Seals (Phoca vitulina) Dehnhardt, G., et al. July 2001 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Effect of pile-driving sounds on harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) hearing Kastelein, R., et al. June 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Automated detection and tracking of marine mammals: A novel sonar tool for monitoring effects of marine industry Hastie, G., et al. September 2019 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Effect of Pile-Driving Playback Sound Level on Fish-Catching Efficiency in Harbor Porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) Kastelein, R., et al. July 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Harbour porpoise responses to pile-driving diminish over time Graham, I., et al. June 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds

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