Effects of Wind Farms on Birds


Title: Effects of Wind Farms on Birds
Publication Date:
November 01, 2004
Published City: Strasbourg, France
Series Volume: 139
Pages: 89
Publisher: Council of Europe
Sponsoring Organization:
Technology Type:

Document Access

Website: External Link


Langston, R.; Pullan, J. (2004). Effects of Wind Farms on Birds Strasbourg, France: Council of Europe.

The report analyses the literature into the effects of windfarms on birds and suggests some guidance for assessing their impact and the precautions to be taken when selecting sites. The location selected for windfarms is of vital importance. The main potential hazards for birds are disturbance, leading to their exclusion from an area or barring their movement; death by collision; and loss of or damage to their habitat due to the turbines and their infrastructure.


This report was commissioned by the Council of Europe for the Bern Convention as an update of the one commissioned by them last year and presented to the 22nd meeting of the Standing Committee for information. It is number 139 of the Nature and Environment Series published by the Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Habitats (Bern Convention). Contents include:

1. Introduction

2. Review of the literature on the impacts of windfarm on birds

  • Disturbance
    • Disturbance onshore
    • Disturbance offshore
  • Collision risk and mortality
    • Collision risk and mortality onshore
    • Collision risk and mortality offshore
  • Birds and windfarm offshore
  • Habitat loss or damage
  • Other issues
    • Platforms for roosting, nesting, colonisation
    • Pollution offshore

3. Environmental assesment and site selection guidelines

  • Criteria for environmental assessment
  • Sensitive species
  • Precautions for site selection for windfarms
  • Recommendations

4. Acknowledgements

5. References

6. Useful websites

Appendix 1 - Environmental assessment

Appendix 2 - Draft Bern Convention Recommendation





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