Humans have inadvertently changed global ecosystems and triggered the dawn of a new geological epoch, the Anthropocene. While some organisms can tolerate human activities and even flourish in anthropogenic habitats, the vast majority are experiencing dramatic population declines, pushing our planet into a sixth mass extinction. Bats are particularly susceptible to anthropogenic changes because of their low reproductive rate, longevity, and high metabolic rates. Fifteen percent of bat species are listed as threatened by the IUCN, i.e., they are considered Critically Endangered, Endangered or Vulnerable. About 18 % of species are Data Deficient, highlighting the paucity of ecological studies that can support conservation status assessments. This book summarizes major topics related to the conservation of bats organized into sections that address: the response of bats to land use changes; how the emergence of viral and fungal diseases has changed bat populations; our perception of bats; and drivers of human–bat conflicts and possible resolutions and mitigation. The book ends with approaches that might advance bat conservation through conservation networks and a better understanding of human behavior and behavioral change.