Underwater Noise Evidence Base

As part of the risk retirement process, OES-Environmental has developed "evidence bases" for several key stressors. The evidence bases are lists of key research papers and monitoring reports for each stressor that support risk retirement for small numbers of MRE devices. The evidence bases have been reviewed by international subject matter experts at conferences and online workshops as part of OES-Environmental's outreach and engagement strategy.

The evidence base for underwater noise was presented during workshops at EWTEC 2019, at OREC 2019, and in Australia in 2019. Additional information on underwater noise can be found on the Tethys Knowledge Base and in Chapter 4 of the 2020 State of the Science Report.

Title Author Date Content Type Technology Receptor
Assessing underwater noise levels during pile-driving at an offshore windfarm and its potential effects on marine mammals Bailey, H.; Senior, B.; Simmons, D.; Rusin, J.; Picken, G.; Thompson, P. 2010 Journal Article Offshore Wind Marine Mammals
Sediment-generated noise and bed stress in a tidal channel Bassett, C.; Thomson, J.; Polagye, B. 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal  
Acoustic environmental monitoring - Wello Penguin cooling system noise study Beharie, R.; Side, J. 2012 Report Marine Energy (General), Wave  
Characterizing large river sounds: Providing context for understanding the environmental effects of noise produced by hydrokinetic turbines Bevelhimer, M.; Deng, D.; Scherelis, C. 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Riverine  
Acoustic masking in marine ecosystems: Intuitions, analysis, and implication Clark, C.; Ellison, W.; Southall, B.; Hatch, L.; Van Parijs, S.; Frankel, A.; Ponirakis, D.  2009 Journal Article   Marine Mammals
Discussion of the effects of the underwater noise radiated by a wave energy device - Portugal Cruz, E.; Simas, T.; Kasanen, E. 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy (General), Wave Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Underwater noise modelling for Environmental Impact Assessment Farcas, A.; Thompson, P.; Merchant, N. 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Underwater sound levels at a wave energy device testing facility in Falmouth Bay, UK Garrett, J.; Witt, M.; Johanning, L. 2016 Book Chapter Marine Energy (General), Wave  
Overview of the impacts of anthropogenic underwater sound in the marine environment Götz, T.; Hastie, G.; Hatch, L.; Raustein, O.; Southall, B.; Tasker, M.; Thomsen, F.; Campbell, J.; Fredheim, B. 2009 Conference Paper Marine Energy (General) Fish, Invertebrates, Marine Mammals
Modeling underwater noise propagation from marine hydrokinetic power devices through a time-domain, velocity-pressure solution Halfa, E.; Johnson, E.; Johnson, C.; Preston, L.; Aldridge, D.; Roberts, J. 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy (General)  
Noise generated from an array of current energy converters Halfa, E.; Johnson, C.; Johnson, E.; Roberts, J. 2016 Conference Paper Marine Energy (General), Ocean Current  
Characteristics of the operational noise from full scale wave energy converters in the Lysekil Project: Estimation of potential environmental impacts Haikonen, K.; Sundberg, J.; Leijon, M.  2013 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wave  
Understanding the population consequences of acoustic disturbance for marine mammals Harwood, J.; King, S.; Booth, C.; Donovan, C.; Schick, R.; Thomas, L.; New, L. 2016 Book Chapter   Marine Mammals
Harbour seals avoid tidal turbine noise: Implications for collision risk Hastie, G.; Russell, D.; Lepper, P.; Elliot, J.; Wilson, B.; Benjamins, S.; Thompson, D. 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Measuring changes in ambient noise levels from the installation and operation of a surge wave energy converter in the coastal ocean Henkel, S.; Haxel, J. 2017 Report Marine Energy (General), Wave  
Modelling the propagation of underwater acoustic signals of a marine energy device using Finite Element Method Ikpekha, O.; Soberon, F.; Daniels, S. 2014 Conference Paper Marine Energy (General)  
Measurement of underwater operational noise emitted by wave and tidal stream energy devices Lepper, P.; Robinson, S. 2016 Book Chapter Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave  
Underwater operational noise level emitted by a tidal current turbine and its potential impact on marine fauna Lossent, J.; Gervaise, C.; Iorio, L; Folegot, T.; Clorennec, D.; Lejart, M. 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Fish, Demersal Fish, Invertebrates, Marine Mammals
Estimation of acoustic particle motion and source bearing using a drifting hydrophone array near a river current turbine to assess disturbances to fish Murphy, P. 2015 Thesis Marine Energy (General), Riverine Fish, Pelagic Fish
2018 Revision to: Technical guidance for assessing the effects of anthropogenic sound on marine mammal hearing (Version 2.0) - Underwater thresholds for onset of permanent and temporary threshold shifts National Marine Fisheries Service 2018 Report   Marine Mammals
Cobscook Bay Tidal Energy Project: 2013 Environmental Monitoring Report ORPC Maine 2014 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Providing ecological context to anthropogenic subsea noise: Assessing listening space reductions of marine mammals from tidal energy devices Pine, M.; Schmitt, P.; Culloch, R.; Lieber, L.; Kregting, L. 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Marine mammal behavioral response to tidal turbine sound Polagye, B.; Wood, J.; Robertson, F.; Joslin, J.; Joy, R. 2018 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Noise characterization of a subsea tidal kite Schmitt, P.; Pine, M.; Culloch, R.; Lieber, L.; Kregting, L.  2018 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal  
Field testing a full-scale tidal turbine part 3: Acoustic characteristics Schmitt, P.; Elsaesser, B.; Coffin, M.; Hood, J.; Starzmann, R.  2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy (General), Tidal  
Effects of hydrokinetic turbine sound on the behavior of four species of fish within an experimental mesocosm Schramm, M.; Bevelhimer, M.; Scherelis, C. 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Fish, Demersal Fish, Pelagic Fish
Underwater acoustic modeling report - Virginia Offshore Wind Technology Advancement Project (VOWTAP) Tetra Tech 2013 Report Offshore Wind  
MaRVEN - Environmental impacts of noise, vibrations and electromagnetic emissions from marine renewable energy Thomsen, F.; Gill, A.; Kosecka, M.; Andersson, M.; André, M.; Degraer, S.; Folegot, T.; Gabriel, J.; Judd, A.; Neumann, T.; Norro, A.; Risch, D.; Sigray, P.; Wood, D.; Wilson, B. 2015 Report Marine Energy (General)  
Underwater noise from a wave energy converter is unlikely to affect marine mammals Tougaard, J. 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wave Marine Mammals