Marine hydrokinetic (MHK) devices generate electricity from the motion of tidal and ocean currents, as well as ocean waves, to provide an additional source of renewable energy available to the United States. These devices are a source of anthropogenic noise in the marine ecosystem and must meet regulatory guidelines that mandate a maximum amount of noise that may be generated. In the absence of measured levels from in situ deployments, a model for predicting the propagation of sound from an array of MHK sources in a real environment is essential. A set of coupled, linearized velocity-pressure equations in the time-domain are derived and presented in this paper, which are an alternative solution to the Helmholtz and wave equation methods traditionally employed. Discretizing these equations on a three-dimensional (3D), finite-difference grid ultimately permits a finite number of complex sources and spatially varying sound speeds, bathymetry, and bed composition. The solution to this system of equations has been parallelized in an acoustic-wave propagation package developed at Sandia National Labs, called Paracousti. This work presents the broadband sound pressure levels from a single source in two-dimensional (2D) ideal and Pekeris wave-guides and in a 3D domain with a sloping boundary. The paper concludes with demonstration of Paracousti for an array of MHK sources in a simple wave-guide.
Modeling underwater noise propagation from marine hydrokinetic power devices through a time-domain, velocity-pressure solution
Title: Modeling underwater noise propagation from marine hydrokinetic power devices through a time-domain, velocity-pressure solution
June 01, 2018
Journal: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Publisher: Acoustical Society of America
Halfa, E.; Johnson, E.; Johnson, C.; Preston, L.; Aldridge, D.; Roberts, J. (2018). Modeling underwater noise propagation from marine hydrokinetic power devices through a time-domain, velocity-pressure solution. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 143, 3242–3253.