As wind energy development expands rapidly within the United States and many other nations, the wind energy industry must be diligent in responding to any potential environmental issues. One of the more significant issues for the industry is the impact on wildlife, and as offshore wind development becomes a reality, the issue is extended to fish as well. The issues and topics discussed in this chapter include: avian issues, bat issues, and other wildlife issues. In 2003, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) proposed a set of voluntary interim guidelines for mitigating the impacts of land‐based wind energy projects to wildlife. Proper project siting and understanding of wildlife and avian behavior and habitat are critical to the wind project development process. Wind developers must identify regions where it is known that wind projects could pose a substantial risk to wildlife very early in the siting process.
This is a book chapter in Wind Energy Essentials: Societal, Economic, and Environmental Impacts.