This is a risk evaluation of potential offshore wind turbine effects on three bird species that are listed or candidates for the U.S. endangered species list. These are the roseate tern, piping plover, and the red knot. The potential location for study is the Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf where future turbines are likely to be built.
Conceptual modes based off of technical literature were used to build a weight of evidence approach. The three different bird species had different outcomes. Roseate terns are at risk most during the migratory, breeding, and staging season. Piping plovers are not expected to be at risk during the breeding season, although they are vulnerable during spring or fall migrations. Lastly, red knots are most likely at risk during long migration periods.