National Avian - Wind Power Planning Meeting II was organized by the Avian Subcommittee of the National Wind Coordinating Committee. Government regulators, scientists and other stakeholders met in Palm Springs, Calif., on 20-22 September 1995 to share ideas about research that could be helpful in predicting and reducing bird mortality from wind turbines. This meeting was the second in a series. The purposes of this meeting were to
- provide information on avian/wind power interactions that will help meet the needs of regulators, researchers, and other stakeholders concerned with responsible development and permitting of wind plants;
- create dialogue among regulators, researchers and other stakeholders to help all parties understand the role that research can play in responsible development and permitting of wind plants, and allow researchers to understand the relevance of their research to the process; and
- propose research projects and the appropriate sponsorship.
The meeting began with oral presentations and discussions of nine White Papers on the theory and methods for studying and understanding impacts. These were organized into three groups:
- Stakeholder Questions, Interests and Concerns;
- Fundamental Methodologies (study design, "metrics", models); and
- Observation Protocols (sunreys, migration monitoring, mortality searches).
The Proceedings includes the written version of each of the nine White Papers, plus a summary of the oral discussion associated with each paper.
The second part of the meeting consisted of four working group sessions:
- Site evaluation and pre-permit research and planning;
- Operational monitoring;
- Modeling and forecasting, including population dynamics models; and
- Avian behavior and mortality reduction.
The Proceedings includes a summary of the discussions on these topics, including each working group's recommendations for future research or associated activities.
A final plenary session drew together the main recommendations. These included the following topics, as described in the "Next Steps" section of the Proceedings:
- Development of a framework or conceptual model of the principal causes of avian mortality at wind plants;
- Further definition of the most appropriate "metrics" (variables); and
- Further develop the research protocols, data collection guidelines, and statistical analysis techniques appropriate for this field.
Mechanisms for implementing these main recommendations were suggested. In addition, there were other recommendations regarding a process for future updates to the framework and protocols, formation of a Technical Review Committee, further evaluation of radar and other methods to document bird movements, and development of procedures to assess cumulative effects.
Table of Contents:
- STAKEHOLDER QUESTIONS, INTERESTS AND CONCERNS
- Stakeholder Views on Research Questions Regarding Avian - Wind Power Interactions
- FUNDAMENTAL METHODOLOGIES
- Assessing Avian - Wind Power Interactions: Sampling, Study Design and Statistical Issues
- The Use of Epidemiological Measures to Estimate the Effects of Adverse Factors and Preventive Interventions
- Population Models: Their Use and Misuse
- A Model to Estimate the Annual Rate of Golden Eagle Population Change at the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area
- OBSERVATIONS PROTOCOLS
- Use of Radar for Wind Power-Related Avian Research
- Avian Risk Assessment Methodology
- Suggested Practices for Monitoring Bird Populations, Movements and Mortality in Wind Resource Areas
- Protocols for Evaluation of Existing Wind Developments and Determination of Bird Mortality