When a bird flies through the disk swept out by the blades of a wind turbine rotor, the probability of collision depends on the motions and dimensions of the bird and the blades. The collision model in this paper predicts the probability for birds that glide upwind, downwind, and across the wind past simple one-dimensional blades represented by straight lines, and upwind and downwind past more realistic three-dimensional blades with chord and twist. Probabilities vary over the surface of the disk, and in most cases, the tip of the blade is less likely to collide with a bird than parts of the blade nearer the hub. The mean probability may be found by integration over the disk area. The collision model identifies the rotor characteristics that could be altered to make turbines safer for birds.
A Mathematical Model of Bird Collisions With Wind Turbine Rotors
Title: A Mathematical Model of Bird Collisions With Wind Turbine Rotors
November 01, 1996
Journal: Journal of Solar Energy Engineering
Publisher: American Society of Mechanical Engineers
Tucker, V. (1996). A Mathematical Model of Bird Collisions With Wind Turbine Rotors. Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, 118(4), 253-262.