The OES-Environmental 2020 State of the Science Report: Environmental Effects of Marine Renewable Energy Development Around the World builds on and serves as an update and a complement to the 2013 Final Report for Phase 1 of OES-Environmental and the 2016 State of the Science Report. Its content reflects the most current and pertinent published information about interactions of marine renewable energy (MRE) devices and associated infrastructure with the animals and habitats that make up the marine environment. It has been developed and reviewed by over 60 international experts and scientists from around the world as part of an ongoing effort supported by the OES collaboration that operates within the International Technology Cooperation Framework of the International Energy Agency (IEA).
Some of the chapters in the 2020 State of the Science Report contained more information and technical details than could be accommodated in the main report. These materials appear as supplementary materials, which are linked within the 2020 State of the Science Report itself and available for download on the 2020 State of the Science Report Supplementary Materials page.
Chapter 4: Risk to Marine Animals from Underwater Noise Generated by Marine Renewable Energy Devices discusses research on the effects of underwater noise produced by operation of MRE devices on marine mammals and fish. In all ocean environments, desirable locations for wave and tidal energy development have multiple natural sources of sound (e.g., waves, wind, and sediment transport), varying levels of anthropogenic and biological noise, and measurement quality challenges (e.g., flow-noise, self-noise). Many marine animals rely on sound for biological functions, including communication, social interaction, orientation, foraging, and evasion. The extent to which marine animals detect and produce sound varies by frequency (spanning roughly four decades from 10 Hz to 100 kHz) and is taxa-specific.
The Chapter 4 Supplementary Material provides a supplementary glossary related to additional acoustic terminologies used throughout the chapter.