Generating electricity from waves is predicted to be a new source of renewable energy conversion expanding significantly, with a global potential in the range of wind and hydropower. Several wave power techniques are on the merge of commercialization, and thus evoke questions of environmental concern. Conservation matters are to some extent valid independent of technique but we mainly focus on point absorbing linear generators. By giving examples from the Lysekil project, run by Uppsala University and situated on the Swedish west coast, we demonstrate ongoing and future environmental studies to be performed along with technical research and development. We describe general environmental aspects generated by wave power projects; issues also likely to appear in Environmental Impact Assessment studies. Colonization patterns and bio-fouling are discussed with particular reference to changes of the seabed and alterations due to new substrates. A purposeful artificial reef design to specially cater for economically important or threatened species is also discussed. Questions related to fish, fishery and marine mammals are other examples of topics where, e.g. no-take zones, marine bio-acoustics and electromagnetic fields are important areas. In this review we point out areas in which studies likely will be needed, as ventures out in the oceans also will give ample opportunities for marine environmental research in general and in areas not previously studied. Marine environmental and ecological aspects appear to be unavoidable for application processes and in post-deployment studies concerning renewable energy extraction. Still, all large-scale renewable energy conversion will cause some impact mainly by being area demanding. An early incorporation of multidisciplinary and high quality research might be a key for new ocean-based techniques.
Wave Power - Sustainable Energy Or Environmentally Costly? A Review With Special Emphasis On Linear Wave Energy Converters
Title: Wave Power - Sustainable Energy Or Environmentally Costly? A Review With Special Emphasis On Linear Wave Energy Converters
December 01, 2010
Journal: Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews
Langhamer, O.; Haikonen, K.; Sundberg, J. (2010). Wave Power - Sustainable Energy Or Environmentally Costly? A Review With Special Emphasis On Linear Wave Energy Converters. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 14(4), 1329-1335.