Renewable energy harvested from ocean waves, tides, and winds as part of a portfolio of reliable low-carbon energy sources to address climate change and energy security is under consideration by many nations. Engineering designs and characterization of the harvestable resource are moving forward, particularly in Europe, Asia, and North America. At the same time, stakeholders and regulators have expressed the need to understand potential effects on marine animals, habitats, and ecosystem processes. These potential effects are prompting researchers and resource managers to examine interactions of species and ocean areas with energy conversion devices. This volume demonstrates the breadth of disciplines engaged in the quest to understand potential effects and the proactive efforts to develop these new sources of energy to the world, in a responsible manner.