Offshore wind power is a rapidly emerging form of energy generation that is now being proposed in the United States (US). This type of renewable energy intends to provide many types of benefits, including reduced dependency on fossil fuels, improved air quality, and a hedge against volatile price fluctuations in electricity markets. However, the US has not yet addressed some of the legal and regulatory issues that are associated with this new form of energy production. Although certain federal and state laws currently apply to such projects, legal gaps exist. In addition, there are unresolved environmental, social, and planning issues that must be addressed before widescale development of offshore wind occurs in US waters. Here, we discuss these issues through a case study in Nantucket Sound, off the coast of Massachusetts, USA.