Wind farms are constructed in various areas without considering the protected animal species that are present there. In problem areas, there are some mitigation measures taken. In 55% of the studies, bird mortality rates ranges from 0.0 to 2.0 fatalities/turbine/year. 79.4% of the evaluated mortality rates for raptors range from 0.0 to 0.1 fatalities/turbine/year. The highest number of wind turbine fatalities has been recorded with a raptor Buteo jamaicensis, followed by seagull Larus argentatus, passerine Eremophila alpestris and domestic pigeon Columbia livia. The only species that has been recorded as a wind turbine fatality and is a part of the IUCN Red list of Threatened Species is red kite (Milvus milvus). The European wind power studies pay more attention to the disturbance of particular species. The species that are most commonly considered threatened are the raptors (common buzzard, common kestrel and red kite), grassland birds (common quail, corn crake, lapwing, ringed plover), migrating birds (migrant goose, crane, lapwing, golden plover) and waterbirds (geese species). Bat annual mortality rates range from 0.0 to 47.5 fatalities/turbine/year at different wind farms. The highest mortality rate has been reported for bat species Laisurus cinereus, Lasiurus borealis, Lasionycteris noctivagans and Nyctalus noctula.
The Impacts of Wind Farms on Animal Species
Jana, S.; Pogacnik, M. (2008). The Impacts of Wind Farms on Animal Species. Acta Veterinaria, 58(5), 615-632.