Loggerhead shrike (Lanius ludovicianus) has declined across most or all of its geographic range. The species’ raptorial behavior requires maintenance of large territories, which means populations of breeding shrikes require large areas of habitat and are therefore sensitive to habitat loss and habitat fragmentation. We estimated breeding densities of loggerhead shrikes in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area (APWRA), California, where annual shrike mortality caused by wind turbine collisions was high until just before our study began in 2016. Based on surveys across an annual average 50 randomized sampling plots in 2016–2019, we estimated an average 129 breeding pairs/year across the 167.6-km2 APWRA. Relative to the size of the study area, density in the APWRA was relatively high compared to densities reported from other study sites across North America. It was higher than predicted by application of the Partners in Flight estimator, which was based on Breeding Bird Surveys along roads. We also found that loggerhead shrikes in the APWRA were limited by the availability of nest substrate and by California ground squirrels (Otospermophilus beecheyi) and their burrow complexes, which have keystone effects on vegetation and wildlife in the APWRA. To most effectively conserve loggerhead shrikes in the APWRA, wind turbine mortality should be minimized, ground squirrels conserved instead of eradicated as pests, and appropriate trees and shrubs cultivated where they are needed.