Knowledge Base

The Knowledge Base provides access to information about the environmental effects of marine and wind energy, supporting OES-Environmental and WREN initiatives. Relevant documents and OES-Environmental metadata forms are compiled into a user-friendly table with advanced filtering. Filters may be selected on the right, or keywords entered in the Search Text box. Content may also be sorted alphabetically by clicking on column headers. More entries will load as you scroll down.


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Title Author*sort descending Date** Type of Content Technology Types Stressors Receptors
Habitat Use, Disturbance and Collision Risks for Bewick's Swans Cygnus columbianus bewickii Wintering Near a Wind Farm in the Netherlands Fijn, R., et al. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Waterfowl
Bird Movements at Rotor Heights Measured Continuously with Vertical Radar at a Dutch Offshore Wind Farm Fijn, R., et al. July 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Passerines, Seabirds
Behaviour related flight speeds of Sandwich Terns and their implications for wind farm collision rate modelling and impact assessment Fijn, R., Gyimesi, A. July 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds
Remote Sensing for Marine Management Fingas, M. January 2019 Book Chapter N/A N/A N/A
Auditory Effects of Underwater Noise in Odontocetes Finneran, J. January 2012 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals
Noise-Induced Hearing Loss in Marine Mammals: A Review of Temporary Threshold Shift Studies from 1996 to 2015 Finneran, J. September 2015 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals
Low-frequency acoustic pressure, velocity, and intensity thresholds in a bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) and white whale (Delphinapterus leucas) Finneran, J., Carder, D., Ridgway, S. January 2002 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Temporary Shift in Masked Hearing Thresholds in Odontocetes After Exposure to Single Underwater Impulses from a Seismic Watergun Finneran, J., et al. March 2002 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Auditory and Behavioral Responses of California Sea Lions (Zalophus californianus) to Single Underwater Impulses from an Arc-Gap Transducer Finneran, J., et al. August 2003 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Statistical Modeling of North Atlantic Right Whale Migration along the Mid-Atlantic Region of the Eastern Seaboard of the United States Firestone, J., et al. January 2008 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Public acceptance of offshore wind power: does perceived fairness of process matter? Firestone, J., et al. December 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Stakeholder Engagement
Wind in the sails or choppy seas?: People-place relations, aesthetics and public support for the United States’ first offshore wind project Firestone, J., et al. June 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Aesthetics
Public Opinion about Large Offshore Wind Power: Underlying Factors Firestone, J., Kempton, W. March 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Corrosion of Stainless Steel in Simulated Tide of Fresh Natural Seawater of South East Pacific Fischer, D., et al. July 2016 Journal Article N/A N/A N/A
Comparing Transect Survey and WSR-88D Radar Methods for Monitoring Daily Changes in Stopover Migrant Communities Fischer, R., et al. February 2012 Journal Article N/A N/A Birds
Eastern Scotian Shelf Integrated Ocean Management Plan Fisheries and Oceans Canada January 2007 Report N/A N/A Socio-economics
Impact of the establishment of US offshore wind power on neodymium flows Fishman, T., Graedel, T. March 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Key Seabird Areas in Southern New England Identified Using a Community Occupancy Model Flanders, N., et al. August 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds
Pelagic effects of offshore wind farm foundations in the stratified North Sea Floeter, J., et al. August 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Farfield Environment, Fish
Seabed Morphology Off Southern Long Island: Studies of Artificial Reefs and Implications for Wind Farms Flood, R. January 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal Benthic Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
Soundscape Analysis and Wildlife Presence in the Vicinity of a Wind Turbine Florentin, J., et al. June 2015 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise N/A
Analysis of Environmental Characteristics and Operational Reports of Small and Medium Turbines Florescu, A., Bandoc, G., Degeratu, M. May 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Socio-economics
Design and Testing of an Integrated Wildlife-Wind Turbine Interactions Detection System Flowers, J. March 2015 Thesis Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Design and Initial Component Tests of an Integrated Avian and Bat Collision Detection System for Offshore Wind Turbines Flowers, J., et al. April 2014 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Effects of Wind Turbines on Area Use and Behaviour of Semi-Domestic Reindeer in Enclosures Flydal, K., et al. January 2004 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device N/A
Rangifer within areas of human influence: understanding effects in relation to spatiotemporal scales Flydal, K., et al. January 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Terrestrial Mammals
Marine wind energy and the North Sea Offshore Grid Initiative: A Multi-Level Perspective on a stalled technology transition? Flynn, B. December 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Human pressures on UK seabed habitats: a cumulative impact assessment Foden, J., Rogers, S., Jones, A. May 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Nearfield Habitat
Is Male-Biased Collision Mortality of Whooping Cranes (Grus americana) in Florida Associated with Flock Behavior Folk, M., Dellinger, T., Leone, E. June 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Wind Power and Birds at Smøla 2003-2006 Follestad, A., et al. June 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Raptors
Whale-call response to masking boat noise Foote, A., Osborne, R., Hoelzel, R. April 2004 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
A Habitat-Based Wind-Wildlife Collision Model with Application to the Upper Great Plains Region Forcey, G. August 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
The impact of a central Apennine wind-farm Forconi, P., Fusari, M., Appiotti, A. September 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Patterns of Acoustical Activity of Bats Prior to and Following White-Nose Syndrome Occurrence Ford, W., et al. January 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Behaviour Of Trout (Salmo Trutta L.) Larvae And Fry In A Constant Magnetic Field Formicki, K., et al. July 2004 Journal Article N/A EMF Fish
Ecological best practice in decommissioning: a review of scientific research Fortune, I., Paterson, D. September 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Intense short-wavelength light triggers avoidance response by Red-tailed Hawks: A new tool for raptor diversion? Foss, C., Ronning, D., Merker, D. August 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Birds, Raptors
Developing New Ground Truthing Techniques for Seabed Mapping Foster-Smith, R., et al. February 2010 Report N/A N/A Nearfield Habitat
From Social 'Acceptance' to Social 'Acceptability' of Wind Energy Projects: Towards a Territorial Perspective Fournis, Y., Fotrin, M. January 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Socio-economics, Stakeholder Engagement
The ecology of infrastructure decommissioning in the North Sea: what we need to know and how to achieve it Fowler, A., et al. August 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general N/A Ecosystem, Nearfield Habitat
Environmental benefits of leaving offshore infrastructure in the ocean Fowler, A., et al. July 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device N/A
Renewables-to-reefs: Participatory multicriteria decision analysis is required to optimize wind farm decommissioning Fowler, A., Macreadie, P., Booth, D. September 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Information Needs to Support Environmental Impact Assessments of the Effects of European Marine Offshore Wind Farms on Birds Fox, A., et al. March 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Seabirds, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Final Environmental Assessment, Burleigh County Wind Energy Center, Burleigh County, North Dakota FPL Energy Burleigh County Wind August 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A N/A
Assessing the Impact of Wind Farms on the Plant Diversity of Blanket Bogs in the Xistral Mountains (NW Spain) Fraga, M., et al. April 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Ecosystem
Benthic Monitoring and Sampling Design and Effort to Detect Spatial Changes: A Case Study using Data from Offshore Wind Farm Sites Franco, A., Quintino, V., Elliott, M. October 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates
Spatial targeting, synergies and scale: Exploring the criteria of smart practices for siting renewable energy projects Frantal, B., et al. September 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general N/A Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Stable Isotope Analyses of Bat Fur: Applications for Investigating North American Bat Migration Fraser, E. December 2011 Thesis Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Bats
Evidence of Latitudinal Migration in Tri-colored Bats, Perimyotis subflavus Fraser, E., et al. February 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Bats
A procedure for deriving wind turbine noise limits by taking into account annoyance Fredianelli, L., Carpita, S., Licitra, G. January 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise Socio-economics
The influence of wind turbine visibility on the health of local residents: a systematic review Freiberg, A., et al. January 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general Lighting, Noise Socio-economics, Aesthetics
Fatalities at Wind Turbines may Threaten Population Viability of a Migratory Bat Frick, W., et al. May 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Bats
Investigation of Sonar Transponders for Offshore Wind Farms: Modeling Approach, Experimental Setup, and Results Fricke, M., Rolfes, R. November 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Socio-economics
Temporal Variability in the Benthos: Does the Sea Floor Function Differently over Time? Frid, C. April 2011 Journal Article N/A N/A Benthic Invertebrates
Acoustic and Electromagnetic Noise Induced by Wind Mills - Implications for Underwater Surveillance Systems Pilot Study Fristedt, T., Morén, P., Söderberg, P. September 2001 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF, Noise Socio-economics
Towards an Integrated Approach to Marine Benthic Monitoring Froján, C., Cooper, K., Bolam, S. March 2016 Journal Article N/A N/A Benthic Invertebrates
Applying bioacoustic methods for long-term monitoring of a nocturnal wetland bird Frommolt, K., Tauchert, K. May 2014 Journal Article N/A N/A Birds
Found in the Wind: The Value of Early Consultation and Collaboration with Other Ocean Users for Successful Offshore Wind Development Frulla, D., Hagerman, G., Hallowell, M. March 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Temporal Variation in Environmental Conditions and the Structure of Fish Assemblages around an Offshore Oil Platform in the North Sea Fujii, T. July 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Fish
Integration of passive acoustic monitoring data into OBIS-SEAMAP, a global biogeographic database, to advance spatially-explicit ecological assessments Fujioka, E., et al. May 2014 Journal Article N/A N/A Birds, Seabirds, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles
Data integration for conservation: Leveraging multiple data types to advance ecological assessments and habitat modeling for marine megavertebrates using OBIS–SEAMAP Fujioka, E., et al. March 2014 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals
Land-Use Conflicts in the Sudetes, Poland Furmankiewicz, M., Potocki, J., Kazak, J. January 2019 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Socio-economics
Vulnerability of Scottish Seabirds to Offshore Wind Turbines Furness, B., Wade, H. February 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Raptors, Seabirds, Waterfowl
A Theoretical Approach to Estimating Bird Risk of Collision with Wind Turbines Where Empirical Flight Activity Data Are Lacking Furness, R., et al. April 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Birds
Nocturnal flight activity of northern gannets Morus bassanus and implications for modelling collision risk at offshore wind farms Furness, R., et al. November 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds
Assessing Vulnerability of Marine Bird Populations to Offshore Wind Farms Furness, R., Wade, H., Masden, E. April 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Quantifying the Impact of Offshore Wind Farms on Gannet Populations: A Strategic Ringing Project Furness, R., Wanless, S. January 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Life-Cycle Assessment of Electricity Generation Options: The Status of Research in the Year 2001 Gagnon, L., Bélanger, C., Uchiyama, Y. November 2002 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Socio-economics, Life Cycle Assessment
Land-Based Wind Energy and the Environment: Potential Impacts for Wildlife and the West Michigan Landscape Gajewsk, B., et al. May 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Socio-economics, Life Cycle Assessment
The Impact of Debris on Marine Life Gall, S., Thompson, R. March 2015 Journal Article N/A N/A Ecosystem
Galloper Wind Farm Project: Environmental Statement - Chapter 14: Marine Mammals Galloper Wind Farm October 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Pinnipeds, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Environmental impact analysis of power generation from biomass and wind farms in different locations Gao, C., et al. March 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Socio-economics, Climate Change, Life Cycle Assessment
Analysis of Wind Farm Effects on the Surrounding Environment: Assessing Population Trends of Breeding Passerines Garcia, D., et al. February 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Composition and activity of arthropodivorous bat community in wind farms in the Mexican Tropics Garcia-Luis, M., Briones-Salas, M. December 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Bats
Integrating Effects of Supplementary Feeding, Poisoning, Pollutant Ingestion and Wind Farms of Two Vulture Species in Spain using a Population Viability Analysis Garcia-Ripolles, C., Lopez, P. March 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Chemicals Birds, Raptors
The role of maritime spatial planning on the advance of blue energy in the European Union García, P., Sanabria, J., Ruiz, J. January 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general N/A Socio-economics, Legal and Policy, Marine Spatial Planning
Prospective energy security scenarios in Spain: The future role of renewable power generation technologies and climate change implications García-Gusano, D., Iribarren, D. October 2018 Journal Article N/A N/A Socio-economics, Climate Change, Life Cycle Assessment
Applicability of the "Frame of Reference" Approach for Environmental Monitoring of Offshore Renewable Energy Projects Garel, E., et al. August 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
The Lessons Learned from the Development of the Wind Energy Industry that Might be Applied to Marine Industry Renewables Garrad, A. January 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Effects of Hydrographic and Meteorological Factors on Seasonal Seabird Abundance in the Southern North Sea Garthe, S., et al. September 2009 Journal Article N/A N/A Birds, Seabirds
Seabirds as samplers of the marine environment - a case study of northern gannets Garthe, S., et al. April 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds
Estimation of seabird numbers in the German North Sea throughout the annual cycle and their biogeographic importance Garthe, S., et al. January 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds
Scaling Possible Adverse Effects of Marine Wind Farms on Seabirds: Developing and Applying a Vulnerability Index Garthe, S., Hüppop, O. July 2004 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds
Possible Impacts of Offshore Wind Farms on Seabirds: A Pilot Study in Northern Gannets in the Southern North Sea Garthe, S., Markones, N., Corman, A. January 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds
Policies and Measures for Protected Species in Wind Energy: An Assessment Between the U.S. and Germany Gartman, V. May 2014 Thesis Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Socio-economics
Wind of Change or Wind of Challenges: Implementation Factors Regarding Wind Energy Development, an International Perspective Gartman, V., et al. December 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Socio-economics
Mitigation Measures for Wildlife in Wind Energy Development, Consolidating the State of Knowledge - Part 1: Planning and Siting, Construction Gartman, V., et al. August 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A N/A
Mitigation Measures for Wildlife in Wind Energy Development, Consolidating the State of Knowledge - Part 2: Operation, Decommissioning Gartman, V., et al. June 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A N/A
Response of Raptors to a Windfarm Garvin, J., et al. December 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Raptors
Acoustic Indices for Biodiversity Assessments: Analyses of Bias Based on Simulated Bird Assemblages and Recommendations for Field Surveys Gasc, A., et al. November 2015 Journal Article N/A N/A Birds, Ecosystem
Renewable energy and biodiversity: Implications for transitioning to a Green Economy Gasparatos, A., et al. April 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general N/A Ecosystem
Bird and Bat Species and Risks to Diurnal Migrants on the Clipper Windpower Criterion Project, Backbone Mountain, Garrett County, Maryland Gates, J., et al. June 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Risks and Risk Management of Renewable Energy Projects: The Case of Onshore and Offshore Wind Parks Gatzert, N., Kosub, T. November 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A N/A
Monitoring Bird Migration with a Fixed-Beam Radar and a Thermal-Imaging Camera Gauthreaux, S. Jr., Livingston, J. May 2006 Journal Article N/A N/A Birds
Environmental and social impacts of wind energy: a view point with reference to India Gawande, A., Chaudhry, P. February 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A N/A
Evaluating Threats in Multinational Marine Ecosystems: A Coast Salish First Nations and Tribal Perspective Gaydos, J., Thixton, S., Donatuto, J. December 2015 Journal Article N/A Chemicals, Dynamic Device, Noise Ecosystem, Socio-economics, Navigation
Gunfleet Sands Offshore Wind Farm Environmental Statement GE Wind Energy January 2002 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Trade-offs between seascape and offshore wind farming values: An analysis of local opinions based on a cognitive belief framework Gee, K. May 2013 Thesis Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Aesthetics, Stakeholder Engagement
Offshore wind power development as affected by seascape values on the German North Sea coast Gee, K. April 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Aesthetics, Stakeholder Engagement
Cultural Ecosystem Services in the Context of Offshore Wind Farming: A Case Study from the West Coast of Schleswig-Holstein Gee, K., Burkhard, B. September 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Stakeholder Engagement

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