Significant impacts to birds have been claimed at both Californian and Spanish windfarms, but in the United Kingdom the current evidence is that avian impact, where it does occur, is minimal. Examination of differences in design and location of wind energy installations worldwide in relation to differences in avian impact is leading towards the establishment of design principles which can help ensure that impacts remain at negligible. These principles are based on locational, technical and ecological factors taken either singly or in combination.
Windfarm Design in the Light of Previous Experience
Lloyd, A. (1997). Windfarm Design in the Light of Previous Experience. Paper Presented at the 18th British Wind Energy Association Conference, Exeter, UK.