The report provides an authoritative review of what is known about the behaviour of marine mammals (seals and cetaceans) around operational offshore wind farms and, in particular, any degree of displacement that persists, after completion of the construction phase. It provides an initial assessment of the significance of any displacement risk, and proposals for practical research activity, if necessary.
In particular it includes a review of information on degree of displacement of marine mammals by operational wind farms using published and preliminary information from wind farms in European waters, and elsewhere. Also, advice on the potential significance of any risk of displacement found. And advice on feasible research activities to improve the characterisation of any displacement risk and, the potential consequences for individual marine mammals and larger populations.