The present study was commissioned by AES Geo Energy Ltd., Kaliakra Wind Power, EVN Kavarna, Degrets OOD, Disib OOD, Windex OOD, Long Man Invest OOD, Long Man Energy OOD, Zevs Bonus OOD, Vertikal-Petkov & Sie SD, Wind Park Kavarna East EOOD, Wind Park Kavarna West EOOD, and Millennium Group OOD in order to collect and summarize the information about the performance of the Integrated System for Protection of Birds (ISPB) that includes 114 wind turbines, 95 of which are within the Kaliakra SPA BG0002051 and 19 are in the areas adjacent to the protected zone.
Considering the potentially adverse effects of wind farms on environmental features, notably birds (Abbasi et al. 2014), the Integrated System for Protection of Birds (ISPB) was implemented in 2018 aiming towards systematic monitoring of any potential adverse effects, and their mitigation: primarily including fatalities through collision with rotating turbine blades, disturbance leading to the displacement of birds from feeding, drinking, roosting or breeding sites (effectively a form of habitat loss), and turbines presenting a barrier to flight movements, thereby preventing access to areas via those movements or increasing energy expenditure to fly around the turbine locations (Hötker et al. 2006, Madders & Whitfield 2006, Drewitt & Langston 2008, Masden et al. 2009, 2010, de Lucas et al. 2004, 2008, Ferrer et al. 2012).
The ISPB consists of a combination of radar observations and meteorological data, integrated with field visual observations, which jointly used are essential for the accurate risk assessment and ensure that appropriate action is taken immediately to avoid collision risk. So far as potential adverse impacts of turbine collisions on birds, a Turbine Shutdown System is deployed supported by an Early Warning System.