The present study was commissioned by AES Geo Energy Ltd., Kaliakra Wind Power, EVN Kavarna, Degrets OOD, Disib OOD, Windex OOD, Long Man Invest OOD, Long Man Energy OOD., Zevs Bonus OOD, Vertikal-Petkov & Sie SD, Wind Park Kavarna East EOOD, Wind Park Kavarna West EOOD, and Millennium Group OOD in order to collect and summarize the information about the performance of the Integrated system for protection of birds (ISPB) that includes 114 wind turbines, 95 of which are within the Kaliakra SPA BG0002051 and 19 are in the areas adjacent to the protected zone. Considering the potentially adverse effects on environmental features, notably birds (T-PVS/Inf (2013) 15 https://tethys.pnnl.gov/publications/wind-farms-and-birds-updated-analy…), the ISPB was implemented in 2018. The ISPB aims to provide a systematic monitoring programme, primarily including fatalities through collision with rotating turbine blades, disturbance leading to the displacement of birds from feeding, drinking, roosting or breeding sites (effectively a form of habitat loss and habitat disturbance), and turbines presenting a barrier to flight movements, thereby preventing access to areas via those movements or increasing energy expenditure to fly around the turbine locations (Hötker et al. 2006; Madders & Whitfield 2006; Drewitt & Langston 2008; Masden et al. 2009, 2010; de Lucas et al. 2004, 2008; Ferrer et al. 2012; Zimmerling et al. 2013; Grünkorn et al. 2016).
Enacting the ISPB includes a combination of radar observations and meteorological data, integrated with field visual observations, which when combined are essential for the accurate risk assessment, ensuring that appropriate action is taken immediately. A Turbine Shutdown System (referred also as Early Warning System (EWS) can deployed at any time in the event of potential bird collisions with turbines.
The monitoring surveys are based on the requirements of basic normative and methodological documents as follows: Environmental Protection Act, Biological Diversity Act, Bulgarian Red Data Book, Directive 92/43/EEC for habitats and species, and Directive 2009/147/EC on the conservation of wild birds, Protected Areas Act and Order RD-94 of 15.02.2018 of the Minister of Environment and Waters. The most appropriate international practices are also incorporated (https://www.seo.org/wpcontent/uploads/2014/10/Guidelines_for_Assessing_…). Detailed information about the scope, technical rules and monitoring procedure are publicly available at a dedicated website https://kaliakrabirdmonitoring.eu/. A detailed review of the scientific information published in scientific journals and in technical reports was also carried out for the study area.
This report presents the results of the ornithological monitoring survey at the ISPB in the period 01 December 2019 to 29 February 2020, including period of carcass searches and Turbine Shut Down System applications in winter 2019-2020 (Figure 1). The primary objective of wintering bird studies within the ISPB territory is to investigate the possible effects of the wind farms (114 wind turbines) on geese populations, notably the Red-breasted Goose (Branta ruficollis) (RBG) due to its near threatened conservation status in Europe (https://www.iucnredlist.org/species/22679954/59955354).
To date, there have been no indications that wind turbines in Kaliakra region have had any adverse impact on wintering geese, including RBG (http://www.acta-zoologicabulgarica.eu/downloads/acta-zoologica-bulgaric…). This report presents the latest results, from the 2019-2020 winter monitoring in the ISPB territory and the Kaliakra SPA BG0002051.