Human development introduces anthropogenic noise sources into the environment across many elements of the modern terrestrial landscape, including roads, airports, military bases, and cities. The impacts of these introduced noise sources on wildlife are less well studied than many of the other effects human activities have on wildlife, the most well known of which are habitat fragmentation and the introduction of invasive species. A growing and substantial body of literature suggests, however, that noise impacts may be more important and widespread than previously imagined. They range in effects from mild to severe. They can impact wildlife species at both the individual and population levels. The types of impacts run the gamut from damage to the auditory system, the masking of sounds important to survival and reproduction, the imposition of chronic stress and associated physiological responses, startling, interference with mating, and population declines.