North Carolina has many rivers, tributaries, and back barrier sounds that form complex estuarine systems, the largest of which is the Albemarle Pamlico Estuarine System. The extensive nature of North Carolina estuaries’ vertical and horizontal salinity gradients makes this region a suitable subject for the exploration of salinity gradient energy as an alternative clean energy source. Geographic Information Systems was used to analyze North Carolina salinity data and explore potential natural and anthropogenic salinity gradient energy sites. Though salinity gradients exist within North Carolina estuaries, it was found that citing options were limited due to the proximity of high and low salinity water and the salinity variability at potential sites. The potential environmental impacts of salinity gradient energy and reverse electrodialysis technology, primarily installation effluent-induced salinity change effects on submerged aquatic vegetation growth, distribution, and abundance, were evaluated through literature review. Results were compiled in an annotated bibliography.