Underwater noise from anthropogenic activities can have negative behavioral and physical effects on marine life, including physical changes, injuries, and death. Impact pile driving and vibratory pile driving are generally used for the construction of ocean-based foundations. Based on the field data under the same marine engineering and marine environment, this paper addresses the characteristics of underwater noise from impact and vibratory pile driving, their differences, and the effects of noise on populations of the large yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea). The impact pile driving pulse had a median peak-to-peak sound pressure source level (SPLpp) of 244.7 dB re 1 μPa at 1 m and a median sound exposure source level (SELss) of 208.1 dB re 1 μPa2s at 1 m by linear regression. The waveform of vibratory pile driving appears to be continuous with a low SPLpp, but the cumulative SEL (SELcum) in 1 min is very high, reaching 207.5 dB re 1 μPa2s at 1 m. The range of behavioral response for adult large yellow croaker (20–23 cm) is predicted to be 4,798 m for impact pile driving and 1,779 m for vibratory pile driving. The study provides evidence of the comparative potential effects of vibratory and impact pile driving on the large yellow croaker and reference for the conservation of croaker.