This paper assesses the applicability of the Frame of Reference (FoR) approach for the environmental monitoring of large-scale offshore Marine Renewable Energy (MRE) projects. The focus is on projects harvesting energy from winds, waves and currents. Environmental concerns induced by MRE projects are reported based on a classification scheme identifying stressors, receptors, effects and impacts. Although the potential effects of stressors on most receptors are identified, there are large knowledge gaps regarding the corresponding (positive and negative) impacts. In that context, the development of offshore MRE requires the implementation of fit-for-purpose monitoring activities aimed at environmental protection and knowledge development. Taking European legislation as an example, it is suggested to adopt standardized monitoring protocols for the enhanced usage and utility of environmental indicators. Towards this objective, the use of the FoR approach is advocated since it provides guidance for the definition and use of coherent set of environmental state indicators. After a description of this framework, various examples of applications are provided considering a virtual MRE project located in European waters. Finally, some conclusions and recommendations are provided for the successful implementation of the FoR approach and for future studies.
Applicability of the "Frame of Reference" Approach for Environmental Monitoring of Offshore Renewable Energy Projects
Title: Applicability of the "Frame of Reference" Approach for Environmental Monitoring of Offshore Renewable Energy Projects
August 01, 2014
Journal: Journal of Environmental Management
Garel, E.; Rey, C.; Ferreira, O.; van Koningsveld, M. (2014). Applicability of the "Frame of Reference" Approach for Environmental Monitoring of Offshore Renewable Energy Projects. Journal of Environmental Management, 141(August), 16-28.