This paper reviews the social implications of wind energy from four points of view: socio-environmental, socio-economic, socio-cultural, and stakeholder’s involvement, and analyzes wind power projects in the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, Mexico, alongside the background of the literature review. Local economy, geographic conditions, culture, and stakeholders are fundamental when planning a wind project. Technology implementation for sustainable development must recognize the importance of reducing emissions and other environmental impacts, and maximizing socio-economic benefits. The aim of this paper is to review social implications of wind energy, with special emphasis on a disadvantaged region in Mexico, the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, with some of the world׳s highest wind energy potential, but one of the poorest areas in the country and with a large indigenous population. Wind energy development in Mexico has been complex and contentious; the large increase of wind energy in Oaxaca has created social conflicts in Oaxaca, which even might stop further wind project development in the region. Ultimately, local communities need to be considered in the planning and development process of wind power worldwide and the Mexican case shows the need for a national and regional policy, and a comprehensible on-site participatory planning.