Current evidence suggest that, given responsible siting, significant changes (both near and far field) will only occur in the event either large numbers of devices or tidal barriers or tidal lagoons are deployed.
Notwithstanding the lack of model validation, ICES advises that large-scale developments should use regional hydrodynamic and morphodynamics models to predict environmental impacts, while ongoing monitoring of impacts should be continued during all phases of a development and at relevant spatial and temporal scales. However, for some receptors the predicted environmental effects from a relatively small number of devices are significant challenges when deploying wet renewable devices.
ICES advises both a move towards receptor-based assessments, and that targeted research and monitoring is needed to address key knowledge gaps for the different types of wet renewable devices as well as for the range of receptors and pressures acting both in isolation and in combination with each other. In addition, practical approaches and guidance, including worked examples on more ecosystem level cumulative effects assessments, are needed. Given the ongoing technological development and advancements in monitoring and assessment methodologies, such guidance will require regular review.
Clear and significant benefits would accrue from standardization in data collection, storage, and analyses, as well as improved access to all data and knowledge from all relevant sources.
Energy storage technologies are currently conceptual and their possible environmental impacts have not yet been fully described.