In line with Germany’s national renewable energy targets, thousands of wind turbines are going to be installed in the North Sea and the Baltic Sea in the coming decades. This expansion of offshore wind power is obliged to take place in a sustainable and environmentally sound manner. To mitigate environmental impacts associated with the installation process for offshore wind turbines, extensive research and development (R&D) effort has gone into the development, full-scale testing and evaluation of noise mitigation measures and low-noise foundation installation technologies. The article focuses on relevant primary and secondary noise mitigation techniques (adjustment of piling energy, impulse prolongation, bubble curtains, hydro sound dampers, casings, cofferdams) and on selected low-noise installation technologies (vibro piling, drilling, gravity based foundations, suction buckets).
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