During this rapid development of wind energy aiming to combat climate change worldwide, there is greater need to avoid, reduce, and compensate for impacts on wildlife: Through the effective use of mitigation, wind energy can continue to expand while reducing impacts. This is a first broad step into discussing and understanding mitigation strategies collectively, identifying the current state of knowledge and be a beneficial resource for practitioners and conservationists.
We review the current state of published knowledge, both land-based and offshore, with a focus on wind energy–wildlife mitigation measures. We state measures and highlight their objective and discuss at which project stage it is most effective (e.g. planning, construction, operation). Thereafter, we discuss key findings within current wind energy mitigation research, needing improved understanding into the efficacy of wildlife mitigation as well as research into the cost aspects of mitigation implementation. This review is divided into two articles; Part 1 focuses on mitigation measures during planning, siting, and construction, while Part 2 focuses on measures during operation and decommissioning.