Society's growing demand for clean and abundant energy has repercussions for biodiversity and human well-being. Directives for renewable energy, energy security, and technological advancements such as horizontal drilling in conjunction with hydraulic fracturing have spurred a rapid increase in alternative and unconventional energy production over the last decade. Given the projected increases in oil, gas, and wind energy development, we synthesize and compare known impacts on wildlife mortality, habitat loss, fragmentation, noise and light pollution, invasive species, and changes in carbon stock and water resources. The literature on these impacts is unevenly distributed among energy types, geographic regions, and taxonomic groups. Therefore, we suggest priorities for research and practice, including using a landscape approach to predict and plan for the cumulative effects of development. Understanding the full consequences of energy production is necessary for meeting demand while also safeguarding the ecological systems on which we depend.