Care for the natural environment is just as important in the modern world, and especially in the European Union, as taking care of economic growth. As a member of the European Union, Poland is committed to implement the Europe 2020 strategy and the 3 × 20 climate and energy package that contains three key goals to be achieved by 2020. These goals are: reduction of greenhouse gas emissions by 20%, an increase of renewable energy to 20%, and an improvement in energy efficiency by 20% by reducing energy consumption. The goals are aimed at protecting the climate, but also take into account the specificity of economies of different countries, which is why in the case of Poland they are lower and depending on the goal they range from 14% to 15.48%. The European Union obliges member states to report in this area in order to be able to monitor progress in their implementation. This study assesses the achievement of these objectives by Poland so far and presents their implementation by 2020. Climate protection must be conducted in such a way that it does not negatively affect economic growth. Maintaining the balance between economic development and environmental protection is called sustainable development. This study also evaluates Poland's sustainable development through a gross domestic product analysis, gross inland energy consumption, and greenhouse gas emissions.