Habitat Change Evidence Base

As part of the risk retirement process, OES-Environmental has developed "evidence bases" for several key stressors. The evidence bases are lists of key research papers and monitoring reports for each stressor that support risk retirement for small numbers of MRE devices. The evidence bases have been reviewed by international subject matter experts at conferences and online workshops as part of OES-Environmental's outreach and engagement strategy.

The evidence base for habitat change was presented during an online workshop on August 18, 2020. The status of knowledge for habitat change was split into key categories in order to assess each aspect of risk: learning from surrogate industries, effects of installation/removal on benthos, changes in community composition on and near devices, artificial reef effect, and indirect effects. More information about the event can be found here. Additional information on habitat change can be found in the Tethys Knowledge Base and in Chapter 6 of the 2020 State of the Science Report.

Title Author Date Content Type Technology Receptor Category
Spatial ecosystem modeling of marine renewable energy installations Alexander, K.; Meyjes, S.; Heymans, J.  2016 Journal Article Marine Energy (General) Human Dimensions, Fisheries Artificial Reef Effect, Indirect Effects
Fish assemblages on sunken vessels and natural reefs in southeast Florida, USA Arena, P.; Jordan, L.; Spieler, R. 2007 Journal Article   Fish, Invertebrates Learning from Surrogate Industries, Artificial Reef Effect
Colonisation of wave power foundations by mobile mega- and macrofauna – a 12 year study Bender, A.; Langhamer, O.; Sundberg, J. 2020 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wave Fish, Invertebrates Changes in Community Composition On and Near Devices, Artificial Reef Effect
Assessing the impact of introduced infrastructure at sea with cameras: A case study for spatial scale, time and statistical power Bicknell, A.; Sheehan, E.; Godley, B.; Doherty, P.; Witt, M. 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wave Invertebrates Changes in Community Composition On and Near Devices
Spatial and temporal benthic species assemblage responses with a deployed marine tidal energy device: A small scaled study Broadhurst, M.; Orme, C. 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Ecosystem Processes, Invertebrates Effects of Installation/Removal on Benthos, Changes in Community Composition On and Near Devices
In-situ ecological interactions with a deployed tidal energy device: An observational pilot study Broadhurst, M.; Barr, S.; Orme, D. 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Fish, Demersal Fish, Pelagic Fish Artificial Reef Effect
Linking ecosystem services with epibenthic biodiversity change following installation of offshore wind farms Causon, P.; Gill, A. 2018 Journal Article Offshore Wind Ecosystem Processes, Invertebrates, Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data Learning from Surrogate Industries, Changes in Community Composition On and Near Devices
Fish assemblages associated with urban structures and natural reefs in Sydney, Australia Clynick, B.; Chapman, M.; Underwood, A. 2008 Journal Article   Fish Learning from Surrogate Industries, Artificial Reef Effect
Enrichment and shifts in macrobenthic assemblages in an offshore wind farm area in the Belgian part of the North Sea Coates, D.; Deschutter, Y.; Vincx, M.; Vanaverbeke, J. 2014 Journal Article Offshore Wind Ecosystem Processes, Physical Environment, Invertebrates Learning from Surrogate Industries, Changes in Community Composition On and Near Devices
Short-term effects of fishery exclusion in offshore wind farms on macrofaunal communities in the Belgian part of the North Sea Coates, D.; Kapasakali, D.; Vincx, M.; Vanaverbeke, J. 2016 Journal Article Offshore Wind Invertebrates, Human Dimensions, Fisheries Learning from Surrogate Industries, Changes in Community Composition On and Near Devices
Benthic biodiversity on old platforms, young wind farms, and rocky reefs Coolen, J.; van der Weide, B.; Cuperus, J.; Blomberg, M.; Van Moorsel, G.; Faasse, M.; Bos, O.; Degraer, S.; Lindeboom, H.; Norkko, J. 2018 Journal Article Offshore Wind Invertebrates Learning from Surrogate Industries, Changes in Community Composition On and Near Devices
Distribution of the invasive Caprella mutica (Schurin, 1935) and native Caprella linearis (Linnaeus, 1767) on artificial hard substrates in the North Sea: separation by habitat Coolen, J.; Lengkeek, W.; Degraer, S.; Kerckhof, F.; Kirkwood, R.; Lindeboom, H. 2016 Journal Article   Invertebrates Learning from Surrogate Industries, Changes in Community Composition On and Near Devices
Benthic effects of offshore renewables: identification of knowledge gaps and urgently needed research Dannheim, J.; Bergström, L.; Birchenough, S.; Brzana, R.; Boon, A.; Coolen, J.; Dauvin, J.; De Mesel, I.; Derweduwen, J.; Gill, A.; Hutchison, Z.; Jackson, A.; Janas, U.; Martin, G.; Raoux, A.; Reubens, L.; Rostin, L.; Vanaverbeke, J.; Wilding, T.; Wilhelmsson, D.; Degraer, S. 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Offshore Wind Invertebrates Learning from Surrogate Industries, Effects of Installation/Removal on Benthos, Changes in Community Composition On and Near Devices, Artificial Reef Effect, Indirect Effects
Similar diversity-disturbance responses to different physical impacts: Three cases of small-scale biodiversity increase in the Belgian part of the North Sea De Backer, A.; Van Hoey, G.; Coates, D.; Vanaverbeke, J.; Hostens, K. 2014 Journal Article Offshore Wind Ecosystem Processes, Physical Environment Learning from Surrogate Industries, Changes in Community Composition On and Near Devices
The trade-off between tidal-turbine array yield and environmental impact: A habitat suitability modelling approach du Feu, R.; Funke, S.; Kramer, S.; Hill, J.; Piggott, M. 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Invertebrates Effects of Installation/Removal on Benthos, Changes in Community Composition On and Near Devices, Indirect Effects
Effects of submarine power transmission cables on a glass sponge reef and associated megafaunal community Dunham, A.; Pegg, J.; Carolsfeld, W.; Davies, S.; Murfitt, I.; Boutillier, J. 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Offshore Wind Invertebrates Learning from Surrogate Industries, Effects of Installation/Removal on Benthos
Pelagic effects of offshore wind farm foundations in the stratified North Sea Floeter, J.; Floeter, J.; van Beusekom, J.; van Beusekom, J.; Auch, D.; Auch, D.; Callies, U.; Carpenter, J.; Dudeck, T.; Dudeck, T.; Eberle, S.; Eberle, S.; Eckhardt, A.; Eckhardt, A.; Gloe, D.; Gloe, D.; Hanselmann, K.; Hanselmann, K.; Hufnagl, M.; Hufnagl, M.; Janssen, S.; Janssen, S.; Lenhart, H.; Moller, K.; Moller, K.; North, R.; North, R.; Pohlmann, T.; Pohlmann, T.; Riethmuller, R.; Riethmuller, R.; Schulz, S.; Schulz, S.; Spreizenbarth, S.; Spreizenbarth, S.; Temming, A.; Temming, A.; Walter, B.; Walter, B.; Zielinski, O.; Mollmann, C.; Mollmann, C. 2017 Journal Article Offshore Wind Fish, Pelagic Fish, Physical Environment Learning from Surrogate Industries, Indirect Effects
Environmental benefits of leaving offshore infrastructure in the ocean Fowler, A.; Jørgensen, A.; Svendsen, J.; Macreadie, P.; Jones, D.; Boon, A.; Booth, D.; Brabant, R.; Callahan, E.; Claisse, J.; Dahlgren, T.; Degraer, S.; Dokken, Q.; Gill, A.; Johns, D.; Leewis, R.; Lindeboom, H.; Linden, O.; May, R.; Murk, A.; Ottersen, G.; Schroeder, D.; Shastri, S.; Teilmann, J.; Todd, V.; Van Hoey, G.; Vanaverbeke, J.; Coolen, J. 2018 Journal Article Offshore Wind   Learning from Surrogate Industries, Effects of Installation/Removal on Benthos
Fish distributions in a tidal channel indicate the behavioural impact of a marine renewable energy installation Fraser, S.; Williamson, B.; Nikora, V.; Scott, B. 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Fish Artificial Reef Effect
Assessment of benthic effects of anchor presence and removal Henkel, S. 2016 Report Marine Energy (General) Invertebrates Effects of Installation/Removal on Benthos, Changes in Community Composition On and Near Devices
SeaGen Environmental Monitoring Programme: Final Report Keenan, G.; Sparling, C.; Williams, H.; Fortune, F. 2011 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment Effects of Installation/Removal on Benthos, Changes in Community Composition On and Near Devices, Artificial Reef Effect
Evaluating the potential for marine and hydrokinetic devices to act as artificial reefs or fish aggregating devices, based on analysis of surrogates in tropical, subtropical, and temperate U.S. West Coast and Hawaiian coastal waters Kramer, S.; Hamilton, C.; Spencer, G.; Ogston, H. 2015 Report Marine Energy (General) Fish, Demersal Fish, Pelagic Fish Learning from Surrogate Industries, Artificial Reef Effect
Seabed recovery following protective burial of subsea cables - Observations from the continental margin Kraus, C.; Carter, L. 2018 Journal Article   Invertebrates Learning from Surrogate Industries, Effects of Installation/Removal on Benthos
Do changes in current flow as a result of arrays of tidal turbines have an effect on benthic communities? Kregting, L.; Elsaesser, B.; Kennedy, R.; Smyth, D.; O'Carroll, J.; Savidge, G. 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Invertebrates Changes in Community Composition On and Near Devices
Mobile demersal megafauna at common offshore wind turbine foundations in the German Bight (North Sea) two years after deployment - Increased production rate of Cancer pagurus Krone, R.; Dederer, G.; Kanstinger, P.; Krämer, P.; Schneider, C.; Schmalenbach, I. 2017 Journal Article Offshore Wind Fish, Demersal Fish, Invertebrates Learning from Surrogate Industries, Changes in Community Composition On and Near Devices, Artificial Reef Effect
Mobile demersal megafauna at artificial structures in the German Bight - Likely effects of offshore wind farm development Krone, R.; Gutow, L.; Brey, T.; Dannheim, J.; Schröder, A. 2013 Journal Article Offshore Wind Fish, Demersal Fish, Invertebrates Learning from Surrogate Industries, Changes in Community Composition On and Near Devices
Epifauna dynamics at an offshore foundation - implications of future wind power farming in the North Sea Krone, R.; Gutow, L.; Joschko, T.; Schröder, A. 2013 Journal Article Offshore Wind Invertebrates Learning from Surrogate Industries, Changes in Community Composition On and Near Devices, Artificial Reef Effect
Effects of wave energy converters on the surrounding soft-bottom macrofauna (west coast of Sweden) Langhamer, O. 2010 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wave Invertebrates Changes in Community Composition On and Near Devices
Artificial reef effect in relation to offshore renewable energy conversion: State of the art Langhamer, O. 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy (General) Ecosystem Processes, Fish Changes in Community Composition On and Near Devices, Artificial Reef Effect
Artificial reef effect and fouling impacts on offshore wave power foundations and buoys - A pilot study Langhamer, O.; Wilhelmsson, D.; Engström, J. 2009 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wave Fish, Invertebrates Changes in Community Composition On and Near Devices, Artificial Reef Effect
Colonisation of fish and crabs of wave energy foundations and the effects of manufactured holes - A field experiment Langhamer, O.; Wilhelmsson, D. 2009 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wave Fish, Invertebrates Changes in Community Composition On and Near Devices
Effect of an offshore wind farm on the viviparous eelpout: biometrics, brood development and population studies in Lillgrund, Sweden Langhamer, O.; Dahlgren, T.; Rosenqvist, G. 2018 Journal Article Offshore Wind Fish, Demersal Fish Learning from Surrogate Industries, Changes in Community Composition On and Near Devices
The location of offshore wave power devices structures epifaunal assemblages Langhamer, O. 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wave Invertebrates Changes in Community Composition On and Near Devices
Short-term ecological effects of an offshore wind farm in the Dutch coastal zone: A compilation Lindeboom, H.; Kouwenhoven, H.; Bergman, M.; Bouma, S.; Brasseur, S.; Daan, R.; Fijn, R.; de Haan, D.; Dirksen, S.; van Hal, R.; Lambers, R.; ter Hofstede, R.; Krijgsveld, K.; Leopold, M.; Scheidat, M. 2011 Journal Article Offshore Wind   Learning from Surrogate Industries, Effects of Installation/Removal on Benthos, Changes in Community Composition On and Near Devices, Artificial Reef Effect
Offshore wind park monitoring programmes, lessons learned and recommendations for the future Lindeboom, H.; Degraer, S.; Dannheim, J.; Gill, A.; Wilhelmsson, D. 2015 Journal Article Offshore Wind   Learning from Surrogate Industries
Local effects of blue mussels around turbine foundations in an ecosystem model of Nysted off-shore wind farm, Denmark Maar, M.; Bolding, K.; Petersen, J.; Hansen, J.; Timmermann, K. 2009 Journal Article Offshore Wind Invertebrates Learning from Surrogate Industries, Changes in Community Composition On and Near Devices, Artificial Reef Effect, Indirect Effects
Biofouling community composition across a range of environmental conditions and geographical locations suitable for floating marine renewable energy generation Macleod, A.; Stanley, M.; Day, J.; Cook, E. 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy (General) Invertebrates Changes in Community Composition On and Near Devices
Benthic effects of artificial structures deployed in a tidal estuary Mendoza, M.; Henkel, S. 2017 Journal Article   Invertebrates Effects of Installation/Removal on Benthos, Changes in Community Composition On and Near Devices
Meta-analysis of finfish abundance at offshore wind farms Methratta, E.; Dardick, W. 2019 Journal Article Offshore Wind Fish Learning from Surrogate Industries, Artificial Reef Effect
Marine renewable energy development: Assessing the benthic footprint at multiple scales Miller, R.; Hutchison, Z.; Macleod, A.; Burrows, M.; Cook, E.; Last, K.; Wilson, B. 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Offshore Wind Invertebrates Learning from Surrogate Industries, Effects of Installation/Removal on Benthos
Identifying relevant scales of variability for monitoring epifaunal reef communities at a tidal energy extraction site O'Carroll, J.; Kennedy, R.; Savidge, G. 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Invertebrates Changes in Community Composition On and Near Devices
Tidal energy: the benthic effects of an operational tidal stream turbine O'Carroll, J.; Kennedy, R.; Creech, A.; Savidge, G. 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Invertebrates Effects of Installation/Removal on Benthos, Changes in Community Composition On and Near Devices
Measuring sensitivity of two OSPAR indicators for a coastal food web model under offshore wind farm construction Raoux, A.; Lassalle, G.; Pezy, J.; Tecchio, S.; Safi, G.; Ernande, B.; Mazé, C.; Le Loch, F.; Lequesne, J.; Girardin, V.; Dauvin, J.; Niquil, N. 2019 Journal Article Offshore Wind Ecosystem Processes Learning from Surrogate Industries, Indirect Effects
Benthic and fish aggregation inside an offshore wind farm: Which effects on the trophic web functioning? Raoux, A.; Tecchio, S.; Pezy, J.; Lassalle, G.; Degraer, S.; Wilhelmsson, D.; Cachera, M.; Ernande, B.; Guen, C.; Haraldsson, M.; Grangeré, K.; Le Loc'h, F.; Dauvin, J.; Niquil, N. 2017 Journal Article Offshore Wind Ecosystem Processes, Invertebrates Learning from Surrogate Industries, Artificial Reef Effect, Indirect Effects
Using coupled hydrodynamic biogeochemical models to predict the effects of tidal turbine arrays on phytoplankton dynamics Schuchert, P.; Kregting, L.; Pritchard, D.; Savidge, G.; Elsäßer, B. 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Ecosystem Processes Indirect Effects
Development of epibenthic assemblages on artificial habitat associated with marine renewable infrastructure Sheehan, E.; Cartwright, A.; Witt, M.; Attrill, M.; Vural, M.; Holmes, L. 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy (General) Invertebrates Changes in Community Composition On and Near Devices, Indirect Effects
Rigs-to-reefs in the North Sea: Hydroacoustic quantification of fish associated with a 'semi-cold' platform Soldal, A.; Svellingen, I.; Jørgensen, T.; Løkkeborg, S. 2002 Journal Article   Fish, Demersal Fish, Pelagic Fish Learning from Surrogate Industries, Artificial Reef Effect
A review of potential impacts of submarine power cables on the marine environment: Knowledge gaps, recommendations and future directions Taormina, B.; Bald, J.; Want, A.; Thouzeau, G.; Lejart, M.; Desroy, N.; Carlier, A. 2018 Journal Article     Learning from Surrogate Industries, Effects of Installation/Removal on Benthos, Changes in Community Composition On and Near Devices
Potential environmental impact of tidal energy extraction in the Pentland Firth at large spatial scales: results of a biogeochemical model van der Molen, J.; Ruardij, P.; Greenwood, N. 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Physical Environment Indirect Effects
Short- and long-term effects of an offshore wind farm on three species of sandeel and their sand habitat van Deurs, M.; Grome, T.; Kaspersen, M.; Jensen, H.; Stenberg, C.; Sørensen, J.; Støttrup, J.; Warnar, T.; Mosegaard, H. 2012 Journal Article Offshore Wind Fish, Demersal Fish Learning from Surrogate Industries, Changes in Community Composition On and Near Devices
Changes in fish communities on a small spatial scale, an effect of increased habitat complexity by an offshore wind farm van Hal, R.; Griffioen, A.; van Keeken, O. 2017 Journal Article Offshore Wind Fish, Demersal Fish Learning from Surrogate Industries, Artificial Reef Effect
Hard coastal-defence structures as habitats for native and exotic rocky-bottom species Vaselli, S.; Bulleri, F.; Benedetti-Cecchi, L. 2008 Journal Article   Invertebrates Learning from Surrogate Industries, Changes in Community Composition On and Near Devices, Indirect Effects
Anthropogenic disturbance facilitates a non-native species on offshore oil platforms Viola, S.; Page, H.; Zaleski, S.; Miller, R.; Doheny, B.; Dugan, J.; Schroeder, D.; Schroeter, S. 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Offshore Wind Invertebrates Learning from Surrogate Industries, Changes in Community Composition On and Near Devices, Indirect Effects
Offshore marine constructions as propagators of moon jellyfish dispersal Vodopivec, M.; Peliz, Á.; Malej, A. 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy (General) Invertebrates Learning from Surrogate Industries, Changes in Community Composition On and Near Devices, Indirect Effects
BioFREE: An international study of biofouling impacts on the marine renewable energy industry Want, A.; Porter, J. 2018 Conference Paper Marine Energy (General) Invertebrates Changes in Community Composition On and Near Devices, Indirect Effects
Biodiversity characterisation and hydrodynamic consequences of marine fouling communities on marine renewable energy infrastructure in the Orkney Islands Archipelago, Scotland, UK Want, A.; Crawford, R.; Kakkonen, J.; Kiddie, G.; Miller, S.; Harris, R.; Porter, J. 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave Invertebrates Changes in Community Composition On and Near Devices, Indirect Effects
Fouling assemblages on offshore wind power plants and adjacent substrata Wilhelmsson, D.; Malm, T. 2008 Journal Article Offshore Wind Ecosystem Processes, Fish, Invertebrates Learning from Surrogate Industries, Changes in Community Composition On and Near Devices
The influence of offshore windpower on demersal fish Wilhelmsson, D.; Malm, T.; Öhman, M. 2006 Journal Article Offshore Wind Fish, Demersal Fish, Invertebrates Learning from Surrogate Industries, Changes in Community Composition On and Near Devices, Artificial Reef Effect
Predictable changes in fish school characteristics due to a tidal turbine support structure Williamson, B.; Fraser, S.; Williamson, L.; Nikora, V.; Scott, B. 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Fish Artificial Reef Effect