The global issue of climate change has necessitated a reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and consequently, an increase in the development of clean energy solutions. The province of Nova Scotia is seeking to secure a green energy supply, which includes plans to develop a tidal in-stream energy conversion (TISEC) industry. This master’s thesis explores the socioeconomic issues and opportunities of TISEC development in Nova Scotia. Data was collected through a comprehensive state-of-knowledge review of socioeconomic issues associated with TISEC (and other renewable energy technologies) on a provincial, national, and international scale by highlighting research, regulatory frameworks, and projects. Best practices, case studies and tools are discussed as they relate to socioeconomic benefits and community development. Four specific components of TISEC development are addressed: 1) technology, supply chain, and workforce development; 2) policy, assessment, and stakeholder processes; 3) financing and funding; and 4) community benefits and economic development. A gap analysis on the Nova Scotia TISEC context outlines the current state, gaps, and possible actions as it relates to research, legislation, and practices to date. Several issues are identified, including the need for: a) a strategic plan for the development and deployment of TISEC devices that is consistent with the Marine Renewable Energy Technology Roadmap (developed by Natural Resource Canada); b) jurisdictional and regulatory clarity; c) streamlining of the evaluation, permitting, and decommissioning process; d) community buy-in to projects and protecting lower income Nova Scotians from energy rate increases; and e) clarity on how benefits to the community will be incorporated into development agreements.