Recent observed changes in climate patterns in Brazil has increased the importance of ecosystem-based adaptation (EbA) in order to reduce the effects of drought and floods. The energy (hydropower) sector is specially starting to be affected by those changes. Changing rainfall patterns, rising temperature, droughts and extreme weather events may affect hydroelectricity generation, causing damages to the infrastructure or disruptions in service. EbA is mentioned in the Brazilian NDC, highlighting the need to increase national capacity in water security (National Water Security Plan), conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity (NBSAP). In addition, the Energy Sector Strategy of the NAP mentions the environmental issues, especially regarding the protection and recovery of natural resources (fauna, flora and physical environment). This paper discusses how the hydropower generation in Brazil can shift to a sustainable hydropower pattern, capable of dealing with climate change issues and, additionally, contributing to increase local adaptation capacity using an ecosystem approach, as accorded on Paris Agreement. A set of EbA measures are presented as opportunities to reduce the climate vulnerability and/or increase the resilience of local ecosystems and of the communities depending on them, where hydropower projects are installed or are being planned.