This report is the first synthesis of information on the location, purpose, and restrictions for all federal de facto marine protected areas (DFMPAs) in the United States. This report reveals important trends in how areas that are established for purposes other than conservation are used, and describes whether and how these areas limit access or restrict human activities (such as fishing and recreation). This is viewed as a first step towards assessing how these areas contribute to conservation of marine resources nationwide.
State of the Nation's de Facto Marine Protected Areas
Grober-Dunsmore, R.; Canny, D.; D'Iorio, M.; Wahle, C.; Wenzel, L.; Woodnick, L. (2008). State of the Nation's de Facto Marine Protected Areas. Report by National Marine Protected Areas Center. pp 84.