Submerged cultural resource managers have a daunting task; balance the protection of the underwater cultural heritage without denying or unfairly restricting economic development of the coastal zone. Underwater archaeological resources such as historic shipwrecks and submerged prehistoric sites can and have been impacted by fishing, farming, and energy development — both 'traditional' (i.e. hydrocarbon-based) and 'renewable' (i.e. wind, water, and thermal). This paper discusses the numerous stakeholders involved in the utilization of coastal and underwater resources, and how archaeological sites are mapped, managed, mitigated for and preserved within the pursuit of marine resources.