The aforementioned State of the Union address by President Obama highlights the growing and politically charged demand for development of renewable energy sources, including wind. Wind energy is one of the fastest growing renewable energy sources under development and while representing a clean energy source, it is not environmentally neutral. The impacts of wind energy development on wildlife and their habitats have become an increasing concern and topic of research and political discussion. However, a lack of credible scientific information, poor or even nonexistent frameworks for decision making, lack of transparency, and weak policies or lack of policy and regulation altogether continue to fuel controversy over wind energy development and wildlife impacts. The issues and challenges presented in this chapter are not all-inclusive, but represent some key factors that must be overcome if wildlife and wind energy development conflicts are to be resolved such that responsible development that minimizes wildlife impacts can be achieved.