Wind Energy Monitoring and Mitigation Technologies Tool

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As part of its mission to support the global deployment of wind energy through a better understanding of environmental issues, WREN has created a free, online tool to catalog monitoring and mitigating technologies developed to assess and reduce potential wildlife impacts resulting from land-based and offshore wind energy development. WREN will continuously maintain and update the research status of technologies to ensure the international community has access to current, publicly available information on monitoring and mitigation solutions, their state of development, and related research on their effectiveness.

Results can be refined by selecting from the drop down menus or entering a search term. Listed monitoring and mitigation technologies are reviewed on an annual basis, but can be updated more frequently if needed, by emailing tethys@pnnl.gov. The wind energy community may also contribute additional technologies for consideration by filling out this survey.

The full list of monitoring and mitigation technologies can be downloaded here. Definitions for terms used in this tool are available here.

Displaying 51 - 60 of 60 technologies
Hierarchy Industry & Phase Stressor & Receptor Technology Description Placement & Integration Research Summary Citations
Monitoring Offshore, Land-based

Operation, Planning
Turbine Collision, Displacement

Birds, Bats
Dr. Aaron Corcoran (UC Colorado Springs) and Dr. Tyson Hedrick (Univ. North Carolina) ThruTracker

ThruTracker is a software platform developed for video-based automated animal tracking. The software aims to use time synchronized video from two or more cameras to detect moving objects (such as birds, bats, or insects) within a stationary background....Read more

ThruTracker is a software platform developed for video-based automated animal tracking. The software aims to use time synchronized video from two or more cameras to detect moving objects (such as birds, bats, or insects) within a stationary background. The system can be used for 2 dimensional analysis with a single video feed.

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Software platform, requires time-synchronized video feeds

Small-Scale Field Study

Jaffe et al. (2022) compared methods of conducting population surveys by using traditional techniques (visual counting) and novel ones (passive acoustic detection, drone-acquired thermal imagery). ThruTracker software was used to partially automate the visual counting method.

...Read more

Jaffe et al. (2022) compared methods of conducting population surveys by using traditional techniques (visual counting) and novel ones (passive acoustic detection, drone-acquired thermal imagery). ThruTracker software was used to partially automate the visual counting method.

Corcoran et al. (2021) discussed ThruTracker algorithms, development, and testing. Two case studies using ThruTracker software are presented. One study involved counting bats in North Carolina (US) in August of 2020 with the software using thermal imaging as a video feed. The other case study evaluated the spatial accuracy obtained from using a wind turbine as a calibration object.

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Jaffe et al. 2022,
Corcoran et al. 2021
Monitoring, Mitigation Land-based, Offshore

Operation
Turbine Collision

Bats
TopWind TopWind Bat Protection System (BPS)

An ultrasound microphone is installed in the nacelle base near the rotor, and at tip-low for larger turbines. The Bat Protection System has a detection range of 45 meters, and can inform automated start/stop functions as informed curtailment or activity-based informed curtailment.

One microphone in the nacelle and an additional microphone at tip-low for towers over 120 meters

Large-Scale Field Study

There is no publicly available literature documenting this technology's testing and validation history.

No available documents.
Monitoring, Mitigation Land-based

Operation
Turbine Collision

Bats
EPRI, Normandeau Associates Inc Turbine Integrated Mortality Reduction (TIMR)

Turbine Integrated Mortality Reduction (TIMR) is a detection-based curtailment system which aims to reduce bat-turbine collisions and economic losses to curtailment....Read more

Turbine Integrated Mortality Reduction (TIMR) is a detection-based curtailment system which aims to reduce bat-turbine collisions and economic losses to curtailment. The TIMR system is composed of sound detection hardware (ReBAT®) and software (TIMR server) which uses acoustic and meteorological data to calculate the risk of bat collisions. The TIMR smart curtailment system is an alternative to blanket curtailment as it only curtails when bat echolocation calls are detected.

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Two acoustic microphones mounted on the nacelle and a server at the plant operating center

Large-Scale Field Study

EPRI (2021) modeled wind variables, curtailment thresholds, and bat activity patterns to analyze the possible influences of various curtailment strategies on wind energy production at six wind energy facilities in Alberta, Canada.

...Read more

EPRI (2021) modeled wind variables, curtailment thresholds, and bat activity patterns to analyze the possible influences of various curtailment strategies on wind energy production at six wind energy facilities in Alberta, Canada.

Hayes et al. (2019) compared the reduction in bat fatalities associated with the implementation of the TIMR system at a wind energy facility in Wisconsin (US) in 2015 to the reduction measured using blanket curtailment strategies at other sites in North America and Europe.

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Newman 2021,
Hayes et al. 2019
Mitigation Land-based, Offshore

Operation
Turbine Collision

Bats
Iowa State University Ultrasonic Blade-mounted Deterrent

The Ultrasonic Blade-mounted Deterrent is an adaptation of the dog whistle which generates high-intensity ultrasonic sound with the aim of deterring bats from flying into the rotor swept zone of an operational wind turbine....Read more

The Ultrasonic Blade-mounted Deterrent is an adaptation of the dog whistle which generates high-intensity ultrasonic sound with the aim of deterring bats from flying into the rotor swept zone of an operational wind turbine. The deterrent operates passively using air traveling over the turbine blades on which it is mounted.

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Deterrent mounted on blades

Laboratory

Sharma (2021) tested the ultrasonic whistle concept at varying air pressures and whistle frequencies at Iowa State University (US).

Zeng et al. (2021) analysed the mechanisms and frequency of an ultrasound whistle at three pressure regimes.

Sharma 2021,
Zeng and Sharma 2021
Mitigation Land-based

Operation
Turbine Collision

Bats
General Electric Ultrasonic Nacelle-mounted Deterrent

The GE ultrasonic deterrent system aims to reduce the number of bats from flying into the rotor swept zone of an operational wind turbine by producing broad-band sound in a frequency audible to most bat species (30-100 kHz)....Read more

The GE ultrasonic deterrent system aims to reduce the number of bats from flying into the rotor swept zone of an operational wind turbine by producing broad-band sound in a frequency audible to most bat species (30-100 kHz). Compressed air moving through ultrasonic nozzles positioned on the tower of a wind turbine generates the ultrasonic deterrent sound.

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Ultrasonic jets are mounted to the wind turbine tower with air compressors located inside the tower on the service platforms.

Small-Scale Field Study

Romano et al. (2019) conducted a randomized block experiment at a wind farm in Illinois (US) during the autumn bat migration between 2014 and 2016 to evaluate the efficacy of the GE Ultrasonic bat deterrence system in preventing bat fatalities due to turbine collisions.

...Read more

Romano et al. (2019) conducted a randomized block experiment at a wind farm in Illinois (US) during the autumn bat migration between 2014 and 2016 to evaluate the efficacy of the GE Ultrasonic bat deterrence system in preventing bat fatalities due to turbine collisions.

Kinzie et al. (2018) aimed to increase the efficacy of the GE 4-nozzle continuous ultrasonic system by 50%. The redesigned deterrent system includes a 6 nozzle system with a pulsing signal. Alterations were evaluated using acoustic and video recordings and 3D bat path visualization at wind farms in Texas and Illinois (US) from August to September of 2015.

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Romano et al. 2019,
Kinzie 2018
Monitoring Offshore

Operation, Planning
Turbine Collision

Birds
Institut für Angewandte Ökologie (IfAÖ) Visual Automatic Recording System (VARS)

The Visual Automatic Recording System (VARS) is a camera-based system developed for the detection of flying birds in the rotor-swept zone of offshore wind turbines....Read more

The Visual Automatic Recording System (VARS) is a camera-based system developed for the detection of flying birds in the rotor-swept zone of offshore wind turbines. The system consists of two motion-controlled infrared cameras which intend to automatically record flying birds and a software system to detect birds and process imagery.

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VARS cameras mounted on the nacelle and tower

Small-Scale Field Study

Hill et al. (2014) deployed VARS in the German Alpha Ventus offshore wind farm between 2010 and 2013. Variations in the distribution of flying birds were observed to determine a potential collision rate per turbine.

Hill et al. 2014
Monitoring Land-based

Operation, Planning
Turbine Collision

Bats
Brogan Morton, Wildlife Imaging Systems LLC Wildlife Activity and Mortality Detection System

Wildlife Imaging Systems aims to improve wildlife monitoring and mortality assessments around operational wind turbines with automated artificial intelligence software paired with commercially available camera systems....Read more

Wildlife Imaging Systems aims to improve wildlife monitoring and mortality assessments around operational wind turbines with automated artificial intelligence software paired with commercially available camera systems. The concept is to use three thermal cameras to monitor the airspace around the wind turbine, two cameras dedicated to monitoring wildlife mortality that falls to the ground and one camera dedicated to quantifying the activity in the turbine rotor swept area. The system software was developed to count and track wildlife flight paths.

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Cameras mounted at the bottom of the turbine tower, accompanying artificial intelligence software

Small-Scale Field Study

There is no publicly available literature documenting this technology's testing and validation history.

No available documents.
Mitigation Offshore, Land-based

Operation
Turbine Collision

Birds, Bats
Flash Technology Wind Turbine Obstruction Lighting

The Wind Turbine Obstruction Lighting system employs lights of FAA Type L-864 with the intent of deterring bats and birds from flying into the rotor swept zone of an operational wind turbine....Read more

The Wind Turbine Obstruction Lighting system employs lights of FAA Type L-864 with the intent of deterring bats and birds from flying into the rotor swept zone of an operational wind turbine. Lights are pulsed at a rate of 30FPM and positioned so as to be visible from all directions as recommended by BOEM with the goal of reducing avian collision risk.

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Per BOEM guidance: Two FAA Type L-864 mounted on opposite rear sides of the nacelle, three or more FAA Type L-810 spaced around mast

Small-Scale Field Study

Kerlinger et al. (2010) analysed avian collision fatality data from 30 wind farms across the United States collected after 1995 to observe the effects of various types of obstruction lighting on avian mortalities.

...Read more

Kerlinger et al. (2010) analysed avian collision fatality data from 30 wind farms across the United States collected after 1995 to observe the effects of various types of obstruction lighting on avian mortalities.

Gehring et al. (2009) studied the effects of various forms of obstruction lighting (flashing, non-flashing, white, red) on avian mortalities associated with communication towers in Michigan (US) from May to September of 2005.

Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (2021) guidelines for obstruction lighting implemented on offshore wind turbines. FAA Type L-864 pulsing lights at the highest point of the turbine nacelle are currently recommended for offshore wind turbines.

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Kerlinger et al. 2010,
Gehring et al. 2009,
Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM) 2021
Monitoring Land-based, Offshore

Operation
Turbine Collision

Birds, Bats
Oregon State University Wind Turbine Sensor Unit for Monitoring of Avian and Bat Collisions (WTSU)

The Wind Turbine Sensor Unit for Monitoring of Avian & Bat Collisions aims to detect the impact of an avian collision with the blades of an operational wind turbine....Read more

The Wind Turbine Sensor Unit for Monitoring of Avian & Bat Collisions aims to detect the impact of an avian collision with the blades of an operational wind turbine. The sensor unit is triggered on impact and is composed of accelerometers, microphones (contact and bioacoustic).  Cameras (infrared and visual) installed on each blade will save a number of images before and after the event for impact confirmation and specie recognition.

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Accelerometers and contact microphones installed at the base of each turbine blade, visual cameras mounted on tower, microphones mounted on the nacelle, and a computer system in the nacelle.

Small-Scale Field Study

Albertani et al. (2021) discussed the development of the strike detection system. The visual deterrent was tested with wild eagles in Oregon (US) in January and February of 2020....Read more

Albertani et al. (2021) discussed the development of the strike detection system. The visual deterrent was tested with wild eagles in Oregon (US) in January and February of 2020. The integrated system was evaluated at a turbine in Colorado (US) in October 2018 and July 2019, and in New Mexico in April 2019.

Hu et al. (2021) evaluated the sensitivity of the multi-sensor strike detection system at wind turbines in Tucumcari, New Mexico and Boulder, Colorado (US) using launched tennis balls.

Suryan et al. (2016) conducted individual component tests at laboratories and field sites in Corvallis and Newport, Oregon, and in Seattle and Sequim, Washington, as well as at the North American Wind Research and Training Center in New Mexico and the National Wind Technology Center in Colorado. A fully integrated system was tested at the National Wind Technology Center in October 2014 and April 2015.

Read less
Albertani et al. 2021,
Hu et al. 2018,
Suryan et al. 2016
Monitoring Land-based, Offshore

Operation
Turbine Collision

Birds
TNO (Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research) WT-Bird

WT-Bird is a collision detection system which intends to detect and record avian collisions with wind turbine blades. The system uses sound processing software and microphones in the turbine blades with the intent of identifying collisions....Read more

WT-Bird is a collision detection system which intends to detect and record avian collisions with wind turbine blades. The system uses sound processing software and microphones in the turbine blades with the intent of identifying collisions. Video recordings of identified collisions are stored for analysis.

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Placed around the base of offshore wind infrastructure

Small-Scale Field Study

Wiggelinkhuizen et al. (2006) tested the capacity of the WT-Bird system for detecting bird collisions with 50 gram bird dummies to simulate the bird species found in the coastal Netherlands. The authors also discuss the functionality of the prototype system.

...Read more

Wiggelinkhuizen et al. (2006) tested the capacity of the WT-Bird system for detecting bird collisions with 50 gram bird dummies to simulate the bird species found in the coastal Netherlands. The authors also discuss the functionality of the prototype system.

Verhoef et al. (2004) discuss the development and testing of the WT-Bird system as well as the unresolved challenges at the end of the project. The WT-Bird system was tested with tennis balls at a 500KW turbine near Rotterdam, the Netherlands in 2004.

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Wiggelinkhuizen et al. 2006,
Verhoef et al. 2004