Wind Energy Monitoring and Mitigation Technologies Tool

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As part of its mission to support the global deployment of wind energy through a better understanding of environmental issues, WREN has created a free, online tool to catalog monitoring and mitigating technologies developed to assess and reduce potential wildlife impacts resulting from land-based and offshore wind energy development. WREN will continuously maintain and update the research status of technologies to ensure the international community has access to current, publicly available information on monitoring and mitigation solutions, their state of development, and related research on their effectiveness.

Results can be refined by selecting from the drop down menus or entering a search term. Listed monitoring and mitigation technologies are reviewed on an annual basis, but can be updated more frequently if needed, by emailing tethys@pnnl.gov. The wind energy community may also contribute additional technologies for consideration by filling out this survey.

The full list of monitoring and mitigation technologies can be downloaded here. Definitions for terms used in this tool are available here.

Displaying 51 - 67 of 67 technologies
Hierarchy Industry & Phase Stressor & Receptor Technology Description Placement & Integration Research Summary Citations
Monitoring Offshore

Planning
Habitat Alteration

Ecosystem Processes, Habitat, Hydrodynamics
Integral Consulting Sediment Erosion at Depth Flume (SEDflume)

SEDFlume is a tool that aims to provide direct measurement of the erosion properties of marine sediment by measuring erosion rates with depth and characterizing erosion properties of layered sediment....Read more

SEDFlume is a tool that aims to provide direct measurement of the erosion properties of marine sediment by measuring erosion rates with depth and characterizing erosion properties of layered sediment. SEDflume intends to be effective for any type of marine sediments but is most designed for fine sediment and fine sandy sediment mixtures.

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This technology is Commercially Available.

Samples are collected from the seabed, safely stored, and tested in the laboratory.

SEDflume has been applied at over 100 sites worldwide to characterize sediment erodibility. McNeil et. al (1996) and Roberts et. al (1998) laid the groundwork for further development and applications by Integral Consulting staff....Read more

SEDflume has been applied at over 100 sites worldwide to characterize sediment erodibility. McNeil et. al (1996) and Roberts et. al (1998) laid the groundwork for further development and applications by Integral Consulting staff. Use of SEDflume and its methods have been approved by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to evaluate sediment mobility and inform engineering design. SEDflume has not been applied for an offshore wind development yet.

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McNeil et al. 1996, Roberts et al. 1998
Monitoring Land-based

Construction, Operation, Planning
Habitat Alteration, Noise

Bats, Ecosystem Processes
SonoBat SonoBat

SonoBat is bat call analysis software that aims to allow users to identify bat species and number through the detection and extraction of ball calls from audio recordings.

This technology is Commercially Available.

Separate computer not on wind farm

Starbuck et al. (2022) used SonoBat to monitor bat activity at 92 sites in northern Arizona (US) in summer and fall of 2016 and 2017 and analyze how land cover and topography effects bat activity.

...Read more

Starbuck et al. (2022) used SonoBat to monitor bat activity at 92 sites in northern Arizona (US) in summer and fall of 2016 and 2017 and analyze how land cover and topography effects bat activity.

Grider et al. (2016) used SonoBat to monitor nightly bat activity at 6 locations in North Carolina (US) from September 2012 to August 2014 using data collected by Song Meter.

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Starbuck et al. 2022, Grider et al. 2016
Monitoring, Mitigation Land-based, Offshore

Operation, Planning, Construction
Turbine Collision, Habitat Alteration, Displacement

Birds
Spoor Spoor AI Bird Monitoring System

Spoor´s software aims to use computer vision and AI to detect, track, and classify birds in wind farms to help developers and operators gain insights and guide mitigation measures....Read more

Spoor´s software aims to use computer vision and AI to detect, track, and classify birds in wind farms to help developers and operators gain insights and guide mitigation measures. Spoor is intended to help developers to improve understanding of how birds behave while travelling in the vicinity of wind farms.

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This technology is Commercially Available.

Mounted on the turbine service platform, flaoating bouys, and other wind farm infrastructure

The Spoor AI system is currently installed at the Unitech Zefyros floating turbine test site off the coast of Norway and in the North Sea. Additionally, it has been installed at four onshore sites and will be installed on Equinor's Hywind Tampen Windfarm. Results are currently unpublished.

Nicholls et al. 2022
Monitoring, Mitigation Land-based, Offshore

Operation
Avoidance, Turbine Collision, Attraction

Birds
Volacam The Bird Collision Avoidance System (BCAS Wind)

The BCAS Wind is a fully automated detection and deterrence solution for on- and off-shore wind turbines. With long range detection and deterrence capabilities, the system minimizes WTG stoppages providing fewer interruptions to operation and power generation....Read more

The BCAS Wind is a fully automated detection and deterrence solution for on- and off-shore wind turbines. With long range detection and deterrence capabilities, the system minimizes WTG stoppages providing fewer interruptions to operation and power generation. The system operates 24/7 without any operator input and functions in all weather conditions. The system uses a variety of sensors including a thermal imaging camera and an acoustic module.

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This technology is Commercially Available.

Two units on turbine tower

Georgiev et al. (2022) analyzed the detection rate efficiency of the BCAS wind system at a wind farm in the Kaliakra region in NE Bulgaria from August to October 2020.

Georgiev and Zehtindjiev 2022
Monitoring Offshore, Land-based

Operation
Turbine Collision

Bats
Wageningen University Thermal Stereo Vision Application

The Thermal Stereo Vision Application aims to better understand bat movements in the area surrounding an offshore wind turbine through the collection of 3D and 2D flight path data. The system consists of two thermal cameras in a stereoscopic setup in addition to ultrasonic microphones.

This technology is In Development.

Two synchronized thermal cameras in the vicinity of the turbine, three ultrasound microphones mounted on the turbine tower at varying heights

Lagerveld et al. (2020) evaluated various technologies developed to detect bird and bat collisions with wind turbines.

...Read more

Lagerveld et al. (2020) evaluated various technologies developed to detect bird and bat collisions with wind turbines.

Lagerveld et al. (2017) conducted a feasibility study evaluating the use of thermal cameras in a stereoscopic setup to record bat flight paths at an offshore wind turbine. The study was conducted between August and September 2016 at an offshore wind operation in Wieringermeer, the Netherlands.

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Lagerveld et al. 2020, Lagerveld et al. 2017
Monitoring Land-based, Offshore

Planning, Operation
Attraction, Avoidance, Turbine Collision

Birds, Bats
PNNL ThermalTracker-3D

The ThermalTracker-3D system aims to evaluate the flight tracks of birds and bats around offshore wind turbines. A pair of thermal video cameras sense movement of animals and objects, day and night, and stereo-vision processing transforms the flight track into three dimensions....Read more

The ThermalTracker-3D system aims to evaluate the flight tracks of birds and bats around offshore wind turbines. A pair of thermal video cameras sense movement of animals and objects, day and night, and stereo-vision processing transforms the flight track into three dimensions. Real-time processing aims to reduce data storage and bandwidth requirements. For floating applications, the ThermalTracker-3D may require camera stabilization to compensate for wave motion.

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This technology is In Development.

Located on ground, surface, or floating platform, looking upward at turbine blades

Matzner et al. (2022) describe the integration of the ThermalTracker-3D system with a wind-profiling buoy and deployment offshore in California. The system was deployed for 14 weeks between May and August 2021, collecting seabird activity data, including nocturnal activity.

...Read more

Matzner et al. (2022) describe the integration of the ThermalTracker-3D system with a wind-profiling buoy and deployment offshore in California. The system was deployed for 14 weeks between May and August 2021, collecting seabird activity data, including nocturnal activity.

Matzner et al. (2020) present a method for tracking the flight trajectories of birds and bats and creating composite images of flight trajectories with data from thermal cameras. Drones were used to assess accuracy of detections near a wind farm in Boulder, Colorado (US) during 2020.

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Matzner et al. 2022, Matzner et al. 2020, Matzner et al. 2015
Monitoring Offshore, Land-based

Operation, Planning
Turbine Collision, Displacement

Birds, Bats
Dr. Aaron Corcoran (UC Colorado Springs) and Dr. Tyson Hedrick (Univ. North Carolina) ThruTracker

ThruTracker is a software platform developed for video-based automated animal tracking. The software aims to use time synchronized video from two or more cameras to detect moving objects (such as birds, bats, or insects) within a stationary background....Read more

ThruTracker is a software platform developed for video-based automated animal tracking. The software aims to use time synchronized video from two or more cameras to detect moving objects (such as birds, bats, or insects) within a stationary background. The system can be used for 2 dimensional analysis with a single video feed.

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This technology is Open-Source Available.

Software platform, requires time-synchronized video feeds

Jaffe et al. (2022) compared methods of conducting population surveys by using traditional techniques (visual counting) and novel ones (passive acoustic detection, drone-acquired thermal imagery). ThruTracker software was used to partially automate the visual counting method.

...Read more

Jaffe et al. (2022) compared methods of conducting population surveys by using traditional techniques (visual counting) and novel ones (passive acoustic detection, drone-acquired thermal imagery). ThruTracker software was used to partially automate the visual counting method.

Corcoran et al. (2021) discussed ThruTracker algorithms, development, and testing. Two case studies using ThruTracker software are presented. One study involved counting bats in North Carolina (US) in August of 2020 with the software using thermal imaging as a video feed. The other case study evaluated the spatial accuracy obtained from using a wind turbine as a calibration object.

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Jaffe et al. 2022, Corcoran et al. 2021
Monitoring, Mitigation Land-based, Offshore

Operation
Turbine Collision

Bats
TopWind TopWind Bat Protection System (BPS)

An ultrasound microphone is installed in the nacelle base near the rotor, and at tip-low for larger turbines. The Bat Protection System has a detection range of 45 meters, and can inform automated start/stop functions as informed curtailment or activity-based informed curtailment.

This technology is Commercially Available.

One microphone in the nacelle and an additional microphone at tip-low for towers over 120 meters

There is no publicly available literature documenting this technology's testing and validation history.

No available documents.
Monitoring, Mitigation Land-based

Operation
Turbine Collision

Bats
EPRI, Normandeau Associates Inc Turbine Integrated Mortality Reduction (TIMR)

Turbine Integrated Mortality Reduction (TIMR) is a detection-based curtailment system which aims to reduce bat-turbine collisions and economic losses to curtailment....Read more

Turbine Integrated Mortality Reduction (TIMR) is a detection-based curtailment system which aims to reduce bat-turbine collisions and economic losses to curtailment. The TIMR system is composed of sound detection hardware (ReBAT®) and software (TIMR server) which uses acoustic and meteorological data to calculate the risk of bat collisions. The TIMR smart curtailment system is an alternative to blanket curtailment as it only curtails when bat echolocation calls are detected.

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This technology is Commercially Available.

Two acoustic microphones mounted on the nacelle and a server at the plant operating center

EPRI (2021) modeled wind variables, curtailment thresholds, and bat activity patterns to analyze the possible influences of various curtailment strategies on wind energy production at six wind energy facilities in Alberta, Canada.

...Read more

EPRI (2021) modeled wind variables, curtailment thresholds, and bat activity patterns to analyze the possible influences of various curtailment strategies on wind energy production at six wind energy facilities in Alberta, Canada.

Hayes et al. (2019) compared the reduction in bat fatalities associated with the implementation of the TIMR system at a wind energy facility in Wisconsin (US) in 2015 to the reduction measured using blanket curtailment strategies at other sites in North America and Europe.

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Newman 2021, Hayes et al. 2019
Mitigation Land-based, Offshore

Operation
Turbine Collision

Bats
Iowa State University Ultrasonic Blade-mounted Deterrent

The Ultrasonic Blade-mounted Deterrent is an adaptation of the dog whistle which generates high-intensity ultrasonic sound with the aim of deterring bats from flying into the rotor swept zone of an operational wind turbine....Read more

The Ultrasonic Blade-mounted Deterrent is an adaptation of the dog whistle which generates high-intensity ultrasonic sound with the aim of deterring bats from flying into the rotor swept zone of an operational wind turbine. The deterrent operates passively using air traveling over the turbine blades on which it is mounted.

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This technology is In Development.

Deterrent mounted on blades

Sharma (2021) tested the ultrasonic whistle concept at varying air pressures and whistle frequencies at Iowa State University (US).

Zeng et al. (2021) analysed the mechanisms and frequency of an ultrasound whistle at three pressure regimes.

Sharma 2021, Zeng and Sharma 2021
Mitigation Land-based

Operation
Turbine Collision

Bats
General Electric Ultrasonic Nacelle-mounted Deterrent

The GE ultrasonic deterrent system aims to reduce the number of bats from flying into the rotor swept zone of an operational wind turbine by producing broad-band sound in a frequency audible to most bat species (30-100 kHz)....Read more

The GE ultrasonic deterrent system aims to reduce the number of bats from flying into the rotor swept zone of an operational wind turbine by producing broad-band sound in a frequency audible to most bat species (30-100 kHz). Compressed air moving through ultrasonic nozzles positioned on the tower of a wind turbine generates the ultrasonic deterrent sound.

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This technology is In Development.

Ultrasonic jets are mounted to the wind turbine tower with air compressors located inside the tower on the service platforms.

Romano et al. (2019) conducted a randomized block experiment at a wind farm in Illinois (US) during the autumn bat migration between 2014 and 2016 to evaluate the efficacy of the GE Ultrasonic bat deterrence system in preventing bat fatalities due to turbine collisions.

...Read more

Romano et al. (2019) conducted a randomized block experiment at a wind farm in Illinois (US) during the autumn bat migration between 2014 and 2016 to evaluate the efficacy of the GE Ultrasonic bat deterrence system in preventing bat fatalities due to turbine collisions.

Kinzie et al. (2018) aimed to increase the efficacy of the GE 4-nozzle continuous ultrasonic system by 50%. The redesigned deterrent system includes a 6 nozzle system with a pulsing signal. Alterations were evaluated using acoustic and video recordings and 3D bat path visualization at wind farms in Texas and Illinois (US) from August to September of 2015.

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Romano et al. 2019, Kinzie 2018
Monitoring Offshore

Operation, Planning
Turbine Collision

Birds
Institut für Angewandte Ökologie (IfAÖ) Visual Automatic Recording System (VARS)

The Visual Automatic Recording System (VARS) is a camera-based system developed for the detection of flying birds in the rotor-swept zone of offshore wind turbines....Read more

The Visual Automatic Recording System (VARS) is a camera-based system developed for the detection of flying birds in the rotor-swept zone of offshore wind turbines. The system consists of two motion-controlled infrared cameras which intend to automatically record flying birds and a software system to detect birds and process imagery.

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This technology is Commercially Available.

VARS cameras mounted on the nacelle and tower

Hill et al. (2014) deployed VARS in the German Alpha Ventus offshore wind farm between 2010 and 2013. Variations in the distribution of flying birds were observed to determine a potential collision rate per turbine.

Hill et al. 2014
Monitoring Land-based

Operation, Planning
Turbine Collision

Bats
Brogan Morton, Wildlife Imaging Systems LLC Wildlife Activity and Mortality Detection System

Wildlife Imaging Systems aims to improve wildlife monitoring and mortality assessments around operational wind turbines with automated artificial intelligence software paired with commercially available camera systems....Read more

Wildlife Imaging Systems aims to improve wildlife monitoring and mortality assessments around operational wind turbines with automated artificial intelligence software paired with commercially available camera systems. The concept is to use three thermal cameras to monitor the airspace around the wind turbine, two cameras dedicated to monitoring wildlife mortality that falls to the ground and one camera dedicated to quantifying the activity in the turbine rotor swept area. The system software was developed to count and track wildlife flight paths.

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This technology is Commercially Available.

Cameras mounted at the bottom of the turbine tower, accompanying artificial intelligence software

There is no publicly available literature documenting this technology's testing and validation history.

No available documents.
Mitigation Offshore, Land-based

Operation
Turbine Collision

Birds, Bats
Flash Technology Wind Turbine Obstruction Lighting

The Wind Turbine Obstruction Lighting system employs lights of FAA Type L-864 with the intent of deterring bats and birds from flying into the rotor swept zone of an operational wind turbine....Read more

The Wind Turbine Obstruction Lighting system employs lights of FAA Type L-864 with the intent of deterring bats and birds from flying into the rotor swept zone of an operational wind turbine. Lights are pulsed at a rate of 30FPM and positioned so as to be visible from all directions as recommended by BOEM with the goal of reducing avian collision risk.

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This technology is Commercially Available.

Per BOEM guidance: Two FAA Type L-864 mounted on opposite rear sides of the nacelle, three or more FAA Type L-810 spaced around mast

Kerlinger et al. (2010) analysed avian collision fatality data from 30 wind farms across the United States collected after 1995 to observe the effects of various types of obstruction lighting on avian mortalities.

...Read more

Kerlinger et al. (2010) analysed avian collision fatality data from 30 wind farms across the United States collected after 1995 to observe the effects of various types of obstruction lighting on avian mortalities.

Gehring et al. (2009) studied the effects of various forms of obstruction lighting (flashing, non-flashing, white, red) on avian mortalities associated with communication towers in Michigan (US) from May to September of 2005.

Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (2021) guidelines for obstruction lighting implemented on offshore wind turbines. FAA Type L-864 pulsing lights at the highest point of the turbine nacelle are currently recommended for offshore wind turbines.

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Kerlinger et al. 2010, Gehring et al. 2009, Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM) 2021
Monitoring Land-based, Offshore

Operation
Turbine Collision

Birds, Bats
Oregon State University Wind Turbine Sensor Unit for Monitoring of Avian and Bat Collisions (WTSU)

The Wind Turbine Sensor Unit for Monitoring of Avian & Bat Collisions aims to detect the impact of an avian collision with the blades of an operational wind turbine....Read more

The Wind Turbine Sensor Unit for Monitoring of Avian & Bat Collisions aims to detect the impact of an avian collision with the blades of an operational wind turbine. The sensor unit is triggered on impact and is composed of accelerometers, microphones (contact and bioacoustic).  Cameras (infrared and visual) installed on each blade will save a number of images before and after the event for impact confirmation and specie recognition.

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This technology is In Development.

Accelerometers and contact microphones installed at the base of each turbine blade, visual cameras mounted on tower, microphones mounted on the nacelle, and a computer system in the nacelle.

Albertani et al. (2021) discussed the development of the strike detection system. The visual deterrent was tested with wild eagles in Oregon (US) in January and February of 2020....Read more

Albertani et al. (2021) discussed the development of the strike detection system. The visual deterrent was tested with wild eagles in Oregon (US) in January and February of 2020. The integrated system was evaluated at a turbine in Colorado (US) in October 2018 and July 2019, and in New Mexico in April 2019.

Hu et al. (2021) evaluated the sensitivity of the multi-sensor strike detection system at wind turbines in Tucumcari, New Mexico and Boulder, Colorado (US) using launched tennis balls.

Suryan et al. (2016) conducted individual component tests at laboratories and field sites in Corvallis and Newport, Oregon, and in Seattle and Sequim, Washington, as well as at the North American Wind Research and Training Center in New Mexico and the National Wind Technology Center in Colorado. A fully integrated system was tested at the National Wind Technology Center in October 2014 and April 2015.

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Albertani et al. 2021, Hu et al. 2018, Suryan et al. 2016
Monitoring Offshore

Planning, Construction, Operation, Decommissioning
Turbine Collision, Attraction, Avoidance

Birds, Bats
Akrocean Windsea

WINDSEA is a floating LiDAR system powered by clean energy (wave and solar) with 365/7 supervision at an onshore control center.

This technology is Commercially Available.

Independent buoys on offshore wind farms

Northeastern University (2019) discusses Windsea and challenges with floating technology for offshore wind farms.

Northeastern University 2019
Monitoring Land-based, Offshore

Operation
Turbine Collision

Birds
TNO (Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research) WT-Bird

WT-Bird is a collision detection system which intends to detect and record avian collisions with wind turbine blades. The system uses sound processing software and microphones in the turbine blades with the intent of identifying collisions....Read more

WT-Bird is a collision detection system which intends to detect and record avian collisions with wind turbine blades. The system uses sound processing software and microphones in the turbine blades with the intent of identifying collisions. Video recordings of identified collisions are stored for analysis.

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This technology is In Development.

Placed around the base of offshore wind infrastructure

Wiggelinkhuizen et al. (2006) tested the capacity of the WT-Bird system for detecting bird collisions with 50 gram bird dummies to simulate the bird species found in the coastal Netherlands. The authors also discuss the functionality of the prototype system.

...Read more

Wiggelinkhuizen et al. (2006) tested the capacity of the WT-Bird system for detecting bird collisions with 50 gram bird dummies to simulate the bird species found in the coastal Netherlands. The authors also discuss the functionality of the prototype system.

Verhoef et al. (2004) discuss the development and testing of the WT-Bird system as well as the unresolved challenges at the end of the project. The WT-Bird system was tested with tennis balls at a 500KW turbine near Rotterdam, the Netherlands in 2004.

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Wiggelinkhuizen et al. 2006, Verhoef et al. 2004