Wind Energy (General)

A broad term that refers to the various ways to generate electricity from the wind.

Wind Energy

 

Wind energy (or wind power) is a broad term that refers to the various ways to generate electricity from wind, the air flows that occur naturally in the atmosphere due to uneven heating of the Earth’s surface by the sun. The type, size, and location of each turbine depends on wind availability, directionality, and strength, as well as grid accessibility and potential environmental and socio-economic impacts. Although the most common turbine design is the three-bladed horizontal axis turbine, several different designs have been developed over time, including vertical axis and two-bladed turbines.

 

Wind energy technologies can be classified in the following categories:

 

The primary environmental concerns associated with wind energy technologies typically encompass animal collision, impacts from noise, avoidance and/or attraction, impacts from lighting, and changes in flow.

Total Results: 2974
Title Author Date Type of Content Technology Type Stressor Receptorsort descending
The Mitigation of Impact and the Impact of Mitigation: An Ethical Perspective May, R. March 2019 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General) Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Characteristics of the soundscape before and after the construction of the Block Island Wind Farm Tripathy, A., et al. October 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise
Use of an optical rangefinder to assess the reliability of seabird flight heights from boat‐based surveyors: implications for collision risk at offshore wind farms Harwood, A., Perrow, M., Berridge, R. October 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision Birds, Seabirds
Pilot field study: observations from a fixed platform on occurrence and behaviour of common guillemots and other seabirds in offshore wind farm Luchterduinen Leopold, M., Verdaat, H. September 2018 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision Birds, Seabirds
Refusal of planning consent for the Docking Shoal offshore wind farm: Stakeholder perspectives and lessons learned Broadbent, I., Nixon, C. June 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment, Legal & Policy, Stakeholder Engagement
Obligations and aspirations: A critical evaluation of offshore wind farm cumulative impact assessments Willsteed, E., et al. February 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment, Legal & Policy, Marine Spatial Planning
Kentish Flats Wind Farm Fifth Ornithological Monitoring Report Gill, J., et al. July 2008 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds, Shorebirds
Reconciling Biodiversity Conservation and Widespread Deployment of Renewable Energy Technologies in the UK Gove, B., et al. May 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General) Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning
Meeting Europe's Renewable Energy Targets in Harmony with Nature BirdLife Europe January 2011 Report Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General) Birds
A review of crustacean sensitivity to high amplitude underwater noise: Data needs for effective risk assessment in relation to UK commercial species Edmonds, N., et al. July 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Invertebrates
Provision of Evidence of the Conservation Impacts of Energy Production Tucker, G., et al. January 2008 Report Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General)
Social structure and abundance of coastal bottlenose dolphins, Tursiops truncatus, in the Normano-Breton Gulf, English Channel Louis, M., et al. May 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Interim Report of the Working Group on Marine Benthal and Renewable Energy Developments (WGMBRED) International Council for the Exploration of the Sea March 2017 Report Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
ICES SGWTE Report 2012: Report of the Study Group on Environmental Impacts of Wave and Tidal Energy International Council for the Exploration of the Sea May 2012 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
ICES SGWTE Report 2013: Report of the Study Group on Environmental Impacts of Wave and Tidal Energy International Council for the Exploration of the Sea March 2013 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
ICES WGMBRED Report 2018: Report of the Working Group on Marine Benthal and Renewable Energy Developments (WGMBRED) International Council for the Exploration of the Sea March 2018 Report Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
JWGBIRD Report 2018: Report of the Joint OSPAR/HELCOM/ICES Working Group on Marine Birds (JWGBIRD) International Council for the Exploration of the Sea October 2018 Report Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Invertebrates, Seabirds
Offshore Renewable Energy Development Plan (OREDP) For Ireland: Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA): Volume 1: Non - Technical Summary (NTS) Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland October 2010 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Interference of Flying Insects and Wind Parks Trieb, F. October 2018 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision
Land-Use Requirements of Modern Wind Power Plants in the United States Denholm, P., et al. August 2009 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Physical Environment, Nearfield Habitat, Environmental Impact Assessment
Potential impacts of energy development on shrublands in western North America Pocewicz, A., Copeland, H., Kiesecker, J. December 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
From strategic marine planning to project licences – Striking a balance between predictability and adaptability in the management of aquaculture and offshore wind farms Schütz, S., Slater, A. June 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy, Marine Spatial Planning
Predictable shorebird departure patterns from a staging site can inform collision risks and mitigation of wind energy developments Howell, J., et al. August 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds, Shorebirds
Red bat fatality: Geographic extents through deuterium and niche models Murtaugh, R., et al. July 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Bats
Columbian sharp‐tailed grouse nesting ecology: wind energy and habitat Proett, M., et al. May 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Nearfield Habitat
The Influence of Wind Energy Development on Columbian Sharp-tailed Grouse (Tympanuchus phasianellus columbianus) Breeding Season Ecology in Eastern Idaho Proett, M. May 2017 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Nearfield Habitat
Evaluation of Wind‐Energy Survey Protocols for Migrating Eagle Detection Chabot, E., Slater, S. December 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds, Raptors
Review of Raptor Sections of the Bluestone Wind Avian Risk Assessment Miller, T. March 2019 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds, Raptors, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Noise impact assessment on the basis of onsite acoustic noise immission measurements for a representative wind farm Kaldellis, J., Garakis, K., Kapsali, M. May 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Noise Human Dimensions
Life cycle assessment of two different 2 MW class wind turbines Guezuraga, B., Zauner, R., Polz, W. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Human Dimensions, Life Cycle Assessment
Understanding Wind Energy Impacts to Bats and Testing Reduction Strategies in South Texas Weaver, S. August 2019 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Bats
The vulnerability of wind power to climate change in Brazil Pereira de Lucena, A., et al. May 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Human Dimensions, Climate Change
Humpback Whale Encounter with Offshore Wind Mooring Lines and Inter-Array Cables Copping, A., Grear, M. October 2018 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Environmental activism and vertical‐axis wind turbine preferences in California Hui, I., Cain, B., Dabiri, J. August 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Human Dimensions, Stakeholder Engagement
Endangered Atlantic Sturgeon in the New York Wind Energy Area: implications of future development in an offshore wind energy site Ingram, E., et al. August 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Fish
A Protocol for Implementing the Interim Population Consequences of Disturbance (PCoD) approach: Quantifying and Assessing the Effects of UK Offshore Renewable Energy Developments on Marine Mammal Populations Booth, C., et al. November 2013 Report Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General) Marine Mammals
Evaluating the Environmental Impacts and Energy Performance of a Wind Farm System Utilizing the Life-Cycle Assessment Method: A Practical Case Study Gomaa, M., et al. August 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Human Dimensions, Life Cycle Assessment
Perceptions of Commercial and Recreational Fishers on the Potential Ecological Impacts of the Block Island Wind Farm (US) ten Brink, T., Dalton, T. November 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Fisheries
Marine Biodiversity and the Development of a North Sea Offshore Powerhouse van Steen, H., Buseman, M. May 2018 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
Perceptions of fishers and developers on the co-location of offshore wind farms and decapod fisheries in the UK Hooper, T., Ashley, M., Austen, M. November 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Invertebrates, Human Dimensions, Fisheries
Public acceptance of offshore wind power: does perceived fairness of process matter? Firestone, J., et al. December 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Stakeholder Engagement
Offshore Wind Energy: Good Practice in Impact Assessment, Mitigation and Compensation Lüdeke, J. March 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Block Island Wind Farm and Block Island Transmission System Environmental Report/Construction and Operations Plan Tetra Tech Inc. September 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Ecology of the brown crab (Cancer pagurus) and production potential for passive fisheries in Dutch offshore windfarms Tonk, L., Rozemeijer, M. October 2019 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Invertebrates
The ecology of infrastructure decommissioning in the North Sea: what we need to know and how to achieve it Fowler, A., et al. August 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General) Ecosystem Processes, Nearfield Habitat
Benthic Monitoring During Wind Turbine Installation and Operation at the Block Island Wind Farm, Rhode Island Bartley, M., et al. February 2018 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
The interplay between economics, legislative power and social influence examined through a social-ecological framework for marine ecosystems services Martino, S., Tett, P., Kenter, J. February 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
The UK National Ecosystem Assessment Follow-on. Work package Report 6: shared, plural and cultural values of ecosystems Kenter, J., et al. January 2014 Report Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General) Human Dimensions
The consequences of seabird habitat loss from offshore wind turbines, version 2 van Kooten, T., et al. July 2019 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision Birds, Seabirds, Nearfield Habitat
Measuring responses of harbour seals to potential aversive acoustic mitigation signals using controlled exposure behavioural response studies Gordon, J., et al. September 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Determining the dependence of marine pile driving sound levels on strike energy, pile penetration, and propagation effects using a linear mixed model based on damped cylindrical spreading Martin, S., Barclay, D. July 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise
Effects of Noise on Marine Mammals Erbe, C., Dunlop, R., Dolman, S. August 2018 Book Chapter Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Effects of Anthropogenic Noise on Animals Slabbekoorn, H., et al. August 2018 Book Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General) Noise
Effects of Man-Made Sound on Fishes Hawkins, A., Popper, A. August 2018 Book Chapter Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Fish
An analysis of the state of impact assessment research for low carbon power production: Building a better understanding of information and knowledge gaps Hanna, K., et al. April 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Marine governance in an industrialised ocean: A case study of the emerging marine renewable energy industry Wright, G. February 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Overview of ocean power technology Wilberforce, T., et al. May 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind
Assessing use-use interactions at sea: A theoretical framework for spatial decision support tools facilitating co-location in maritime spatial planning Bonnevie, I., Hansen, H., Schrøder, L. August 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning
International good practices for facilitating transboundary collaboration in Marine Spatial Planning Kull, M., et al. January 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning
Imbalances in interaction for transboundary marine spatial planning: Insights from the Baltic Sea Region Janßen, H., et al. July 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment, Marine Spatial Planning, Stakeholder Engagement
The mechanics of blue growth: Management of oceanic natural resource use with multiple, interacting sectors Klinger, D., et al. January 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy, Marine Spatial Planning
Three-dimensional mapping of the benthic invertebrates biophony with a compact four-hydrophones array Gervaise, C., et al. May 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Invertebrates
Benthos distribution modelling and its relevance for marine ecosystem management Reiss, H., et al. February 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Invertebrates
Functional and structural responses to marine urbanisation Mayer-Pinto, M., et al. January 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Invertebrates
Precipitation reduction during Hurricane Harvey with simulated offshore wind farms Pan, Y., Yan, C., Archer, C. July 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Crop Wind Energy Experiment (CWEX): Observations of Surface-Layer, Boundary Layer, and Mesoscale Interactions with a Wind Farm Rajewski, D., et al. May 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Changes in Flow Nearfield Habitat
Changes in fluxes of heat, H2O, and CO2 caused by a large wind farm Rajewski, D., et al. August 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Changes in Flow Nearfield Habitat
Further evidence of impacts of large-scale wind farms on land surface temperature Walsh-Thomas, J., et al. October 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Impact of substantial wind farms on the local and regional atmospheric boundary layer: Case study of Zhangbei wind power base in China Wang, Q., et al. September 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Spatiotemporal Structure of Wind Farm-atmospheric Boundary Layer Interactions Cervarich, M., Roy, S., Zhou, L. January 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Changes in Flow Nearfield Habitat
Corridors for aliens but not for natives: effects of marine urban sprawl at a regional scale Airoldi, L., et al. July 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Invertebrates
Vitamine ENA: A framework for the development of ecosystem-based indicators for decision makers Safi, G., et al. May 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Ecosystem Processes, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Developing offshore wind farm siting criteria by using an international Delphi method Ho, L., et al. February 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning
Do wind turbines impact plant community properties in mountain region? Pătru-Stupariu, I., et al. August 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Nearfield Habitat
Simulating impacts of real-world wind farms on land surface temperature using the WRF model: physical mechanisms Xia, G., et al. March 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Physical Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Detecting Wind Farm Impacts on Local Vegetation Growth in Texas and Illinois Using MODIS Vegetation Greenness Measurements Xia, G., Zhou, L. July 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Changes in Flow Nearfield Habitat
Vegetation Cover Change of Çeşme Alaçatı Wind Power Plant Using Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) Balik, G., et al. September 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Nearfield Habitat
Assessing the Impact of Climate Conditions on Harnessing Coastal (Offshore) Wind Energy Akter, S., Loo, J., Hannan, M. November 2018 Conference Paper Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Climate Change
Wave Climate and Coastline Response of the Dutch Coast: Investigating the effect of large-scale offshore wind farm developments in the North Sea Ballas, G. November 2018 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment, Sediment Transport
Benthic production and energy export from man-made structures to softbottoms: does it matter? Dannheim, J., et al. September 2018 Conference Paper Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Ecosystem Processes
Connectivity of larval stages of sedentary marine communities between hard substrates and offshore structures in the North Sea van der Molen, J., et al. October 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Ecosystem Processes, Invertebrates
Nonlocal Inadvertent Weather Modification Associated with Wind Farms in the Central United States Lauridsen, M., Ancell, B. August 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment
The Influence of Real‐World Wind Turbine Deployments on Local to Mesoscale Climate Pryor, S., Barthelmie, R., Shepherd, T. May 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Offshore Wind Farm Wake Effect on Stratification and Coastal Upwelling Paskyabi, M. December 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Changes in Flow
Impacts of climate change on wind energy power – Four wind farms in Spain Solaun, K., Emilio, C. January 2020 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Human Dimensions, Climate Change
A 30-year projection of the future wind energy resources in the coastal environment of the Black Sea Rusu, E. September 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Climate Change
Evaluation of the near future wave energy resources in the Black Sea under two climate scenarios Rusu, L. November 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Climate Change
Research frontiers in sustainable development of energy, water and environment systems in a time of climate crisis Kılkış, Ş., et al. November 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General) Human Dimensions, Climate Change
Renewable energy projections for climate change mitigation: An analysis of uncertainty and errors Indra al Irsyad, M., Halog, A., Nepal, R. January 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General) Human Dimensions, Climate Change
Placing Green Energy in the Sea: Offshore Wind Farms, Dolphins, Oysters, and the Territorial Politics of the Intertidal Zone in Taiwan Hung, P. August 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy, Stakeholder Engagement
Marine Renewable Energy Converters and Biofouling: A Review on Impacts and Prevention Titah-Benbouzid, H., Benbouzid, M. September 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Invertebrates
Ecological best practice in decommissioning: a review of scientific research Fortune, I., Paterson, D. September 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Nearfield Habitat, Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Oil and gas platforms as artificial substrates for epibenthic North Sea fauna: Effects of location and depth Schutter, M., et al. November 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Fish, Invertebrates
Benthic Conservation Features and Species Associated With Subsea Pipelines: Considerations for Decommissioning Rouse, S., et al. April 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Invertebrates, Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Low genetic connectivity in a fouling amphipod among man-made structures in the southern North Sea Luttikhuizen, P., et al. April 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Invertebrates
Oceanographic and biological influences on recruitment of benthic invertebrates to hard substrata on the Oregon shelf Meyer, K., Li, Y., Young, C. August 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Invertebrates
Understanding the Impacts of Offshore Wind Farms on Well-Being Hattam, C., Hooper, T., Papathanasopoulou, E. January 2015 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
Environmental impacts of offshore wind farms in the Belgian part of the North Sea: Environmental impact monitoring reloaded Degraer, S., et al. January 2016 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind
Offshore Wind Farms in the Belgian Part of the North Sea: Selected findings from the baseline and targeted monitoring Degraer, S., Brabant, R., Rumes, B. January 2011 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind
Memoirs on the Marine Environment - Environmental Impacts of Offshore Wind Farms in the Belgian Part of the North Sea: a Continued move towards Integration and Quantification Degraer, S., et al. January 2017 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment

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