Wind Energy (General)

A broad term that refers to the various ways to generate electricity from the wind.

Wind Energy

 

Wind energy (or wind power) is a broad term that refers to the various ways to generate electricity from wind, the air flows that occur naturally in the atmosphere due to uneven heating of the Earth’s surface by the sun. The type, size, and location of each turbine depends on wind availability, directionality, and strength, as well as grid accessibility and potential environmental and socio-economic impacts. Although the most common turbine design is the three-bladed horizontal axis turbine, several different designs have been developed over time, including vertical axis and two-bladed turbines.

 

Wind energy technologies can be classified in the following categories:

 

The primary environmental concerns associated with wind energy technologies typically encompass animal collision, impacts from noise, avoidance and/or attraction, impacts from lighting, and changes in flow.

Total Results: 2974
Title Author Datesort ascending Type of Content Technology Type Stressor Receptor
Addendum to the Phase I Avian Risk Assessment for the Flat Rock Wind Power Project, Lewis County, New York: Phase One and Phase Two Kerlinger, P. March 2003 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds
Avian Interactions with Wind Power Structures Electric Power Research Institute March 2003 Conference Paper Wind Energy (General) Collision, Habitat Change Birds
Two White-Tailed Sea Eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla) Collide with Wind Generators in Northern Germany Krone, O., Scharnweber, C. March 2003 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Effects of offshore wind farms on birds: "Cuisinarts of the sky" or just tilting at windmills? Tingley, M. March 2003 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision Birds, Passerines, Seabirds
Avian and Sensitive Species Baseline Study Final Report: Eurus Combine Hills Turbine Ranch Umatilla County, Oregon Young, D. Jr., et al. March 2003 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Collision Potential of Eiders and Other Birds Near a Proposed Windfarm at St. Lawrence Island, October-November 2002 Day, R., et al. March 2003 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds, Raptors, Seabirds, Shorebirds, Waterfowl
Phase I Avian Risk Assessment for the Windmar Project, Guyanilla, Puerto Rico Kerlinger, P. March 2003 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds
Musselroe Wind Farm Project Summary Ellis, M. March 2003 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds
Avian and Bat Mortality During the First Year of Operation at the Klondike Phase I Wind Project, Sherman County, Oregon Johnson, G., et al. March 2003 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Evaluation of the Environmental Impact of the 20 MW Wind Power Project in Tejona, Costa Rica Report of Phase 2 of the Tejona Wind Power Project (TWPP) van Hulle, F., et al. February 2003 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Avian Bat Mortality Associated with the Initial Phase of the Foote Creek Rim Windpower Project, Carbon County, Wyoming Young, D. Jr., et al. January 2003 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Bats, Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Shorebirds, Waterfowl
Mortality of Bats at a Large-Scale Wind Power Development at Buffalo Ridge, Minnesota Johnson, G., et al. January 2003 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Bats
Offshore Wind Farms in the Western Great Lakes: An Interdisciplinary Analysis of their Potential Hingtgen, J. January 2003 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind
Wildlife Baseline Study for the Kittitas Valley Wind Project: Summary of Results from 2002 Wildlife Surveys Erickson, W., et al. January 2003 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Thermal Animal Detection System (TADS): Development of a Method for Estimating Collision Frequency of Migrating Birds at Offshore Wind Turbines Desholm, M. January 2003 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision Birds, Passerines, Seabirds, Waterfowl
Wind Turbines and Birds in Flanders: Preliminary Study Results and Recommendations Everaert, J. January 2003 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Birds
National Wind Technology Center Site Environmental Assessment: Bird and Bat Use and Fatalities - Final Report Schmidt, E., et al. January 2003 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Bats, Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Comparison of Avian Responses to UV-Light-Reflective Paint on Wind Turbines Young, D., et al. January 2003 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Lighting Birds, Raptors
Guidelines for Wind Power and Wildlife in Washington State, USA Ling, S., Linehan, A. January 2003 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Movements of Seals from Rødsand Seal Sanctuary Monitored by Satellite Telemetry Dietz, R., et al. January 2003 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Pickering Wind Turbine Bird Monitoring Program in 2002 James, R. December 2002 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind
Synthesis and Comparison of Baseline Avian and Bat Use, Raptor Nesting and Mortality Information from Proposed and Existing Wind Developments Erickson, W., et al. December 2002 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Bats, Birds, Raptors, Waterfowl
A Roadmap for PIER Research on Avian Collisions with Wind Turbines in California Sterner, D. December 2002 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Bats, Birds, Raptors
Effects of Wind Turbines on Birds and Bats in Northeastern Wisconsin Howe, R., Evans, W., Wolf, A. November 2002 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Seabirds, Shorebirds
Baseline Avian Studies for the Proposed Maiden Wind Farm, Yakima and Benton Counties, Washington Young, D., et al. November 2002 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds
Life-Cycle Assessment of Electricity Generation Options: The Status of Research in the Year 2001 Gagnon, L., Bélanger, C., Uchiyama, Y. November 2002 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Human Dimensions, Life Cycle Assessment
Future Offshore: A Strategic Framework for the Offshore Wind Industry UK Department of Trade and Industry November 2002 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
Renewable Energy from the Ocean Pelc, R., Fujita, R. November 2002 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind
Evaluation of Wind Turbine Noise DeGagne, D., Lewis, A., May, C. September 2002 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Noise
Avian/Wind Turbine Interactions: A Short Summary of Research Results and Remaining Questions National Wind Coordinating Committee September 2002 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Bats, Birds
Burbo Offshore Wind Farm Volume 2: ES Biological Environment The University of Liverpool Centre for Marine and Coastal Studies September 2002 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Invertebrates, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
High Level Environmental Screening Study for Offshore Wind Farm Developments - Marine Habitats and Species Project Hiscock, K., Tyler-Walters, H., Jones, H. August 2002 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision, EMF, Changes in Flow, Noise, Habitat Change Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Ecosystem Processes, Physical Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Human Dimensions
Collision Mortality of Local and Migrant Birds at a Large-Scale Wind-Power Development on Buffalo Ridge, Minnesota Johnson, G., et al. August 2002 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Seabirds, Shorebirds, Waterfowl
Energy and CO2 Life-Cycle Analyses of Wind Turbines - Review and Applications Lenzen, M., Munksgaard, J. July 2002 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Human Dimensions, Climate Change, Life Cycle Assessment
Golden Eagles in a Perilous Landscape: Predicting the Effects of Mitigation for Wind Turbine Blade Strike Mortality Hunt, G. July 2002 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds, Raptors
Technologies and their Influence on Future UK Marine Resource Development and Management Side, J., Jowitt, P. July 2002 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wave, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
Searcher Bias and Scavenging Rates in Bird/Wind Energy Studies Morrison, M. June 2002 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds
Response of Red-Tailed Hawks and Golden Eagles to Topographical Features, Weather, and Abundance of a Dominant Prey Species at the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area, California: April 1999-December 2000 Hoover, S. June 2002 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
The Role of the DPSIR Approach and Conceptual Models in Marine Environmental Management: An Example for Offshore Wind Power Elliott, M. June 2002 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
Postdevelopment Experiments to Detect Anthropogenic Disturbances: The Case of Sea Ducks and Wind Parks Guillemette, M., Larsen, J. June 2002 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Birds, Waterfowl
Ecological Baseline Study for the Zintel Canyon Wind Project Erickson, W., et al. June 2002 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds, Raptors
Avian Hearing and the Avoidance of Wind Turbines Dooling, R. June 2002 Report Wind Energy (General) Noise Birds
Baseline Ecological Studies for the Klondike Wind Project, Sherman County, Oregon Johnson, G., et al. May 2002 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds, Raptors
Demonstration Windpower Project St. Lawrence Bird Surveys Jacques Whitford Environment May 2002 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
An Assessment of the Impacts of Green Mountain Power Corporation's Wind Power Facility on Breeding and Migrating Birds in Searsburg, Vermont: July 1996-July 1998 Kerlinger, P. March 2002 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Passerines, Raptors
Predicting the Displacement of Common Scoter Melanitta nigra from Benthic Feeding Areas Due to Offshore Windfarms Kaiser, M., et al. March 2002 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Birds, Waterfowl
Phase I Avian Risk Assessment for the Flat Rock Wind Power Project, Lewis County, New York Kerlinger, P. February 2002 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Maiden Wind Farm Benton County, Washington Final SEPA Environmental Impact Statement and Final NEPA Environmental Impact Statement Bonneville Power Administration, Benton County, Washington January 2002 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment, Life Cycle Assessment
Potential Wind Park Impacts on Whooper Swans in Winter: The Risk of Collision Larsen, J., Clausen, P. January 2002 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds, Waterfowl
Gunfleet Sands Offshore Wind Farm Environmental Statement GE Wind Energy January 2002 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Open Ocean Aquaculture and Offshore Wind Farms. A feasibility study on the multifunctional use of offshore wind farms and offshore mariculture in the North Sea area Buck, B. January 2002 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Fisheries
Recommendations for project-related studies of possible impacts of marine wind farms during construction and operation on birds Hüppop, O., Exo, K., Garthe, S. January 2002 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds
Potential Effects of Offshore Wind Developments on Coastal Processes Beiboer, F., Cooper, B. January 2002 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Golden Eagles in a Multiple Land-Use Environment: A Case Study in Conflict Management Madders, M., Walker, D. January 2002 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds, Raptors
Using conjoint analysis to quantify public preferences over the environmental impacts of wind farms. An example from Spain Alvarez-Farizo, B., Hanley, N. January 2002 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Human Dimensions, Stakeholder Engagement
The Potential Effects of Electromagnetic Fields Generated by Cabling Between Offshore Wind Turbines upon Elasmobranch Fishes Gill, A., Taylor, H. September 2001 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind EMF Fish
Acoustic and Electromagnetic Noise Induced by Wind Mills - Implications for Underwater Surveillance Systems Pilot Study Fristedt, T., Morén, P., Söderberg, P. September 2001 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind EMF, Noise Human Dimensions
Avian Collisions with Wind Turbines: A Summary of Existing Studies and Comparisons to Other Sources of Avian Collision Mortality in the United States of America Erickson, W., et al. August 2001 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds, Passerines, Raptors
Life Cycle Assessment of a 150 MW Offshore Wind Turbine Farm at Nysted/Roedsand, Denmark Properzi, S., Herk-Hansen, H. July 2001 Conference Paper Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Life Cycle Assessment
Status of Avian Research at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory Sinclair, K. June 2001 Conference Paper Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Bats, Birds
Proceedings of the National Avian - Wind Power Planning Meeting IV RESOLVE May 2001 Conference Paper Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Bats, Birds, Raptors
Environmental Consequences of Offshore Wind Power Generation Parkinson, K. April 2001 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow, Habitat Change Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Environmental Report: High Prairie II Wind Project Minnesota Department of Commerce February 2001 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Physical Environment
Automated Systems for Monitoring Avian Interactions with Utility Structures and Evaluating the Effectiveness of Mitigative Measures Carlton, R., Harness, R. February 2001 Conference Paper Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Assessment of the Effects of Offshore Wind in Birds Percival, S. January 2001 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Seabirds, Waterfowl
Assessment Of The Effects Of Noise And Vibration From Offshore Wind Farms On Marine Wildlife Vella, G., et al. January 2001 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Fish, Marine Mammals
Final Report: Wind-turbine related bat mortality in southwestern Minnesota Krenz, J., McMillan, B. December 2000 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats
Effects of Wind Turbines and Other Physical Elements on Field Utilization by Pink-Footed Geese (Anser brachyrhynchus): A Landscape Perspective Larsen, J., Madsen, J. December 2000 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds, Waterfowl
Noise Measurements and Analysis: Offshore Pile-Driving Underwater and Above-Water Ødegaard and Danneskiold-Samsøe October 2000 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise
Avian Monitoring Studies at the Buffalo Ridge, Minnesota Wind Resource Area: Results of a 4-Year Study Johnson, G., et al. September 2000 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats, Raptors
Wildlife Monitoring Studies: SeaWest Windpower Project, Carbon County, Wyoming: 1995-1999 Johnson, G., et al. August 2000 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds, Raptors, Shorebirds
Life Cycle Assessment of a Wind Farm and Related Externalities Schleisner, L. July 2000 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Human Dimensions, Life Cycle Assessment
Proceedings of the National Avian - Wind Power Planning Meeting III LGL June 2000 Conference Paper Wind Energy (General) Collision, Habitat Change Bats, Birds
Avian Risk Behavior and Fatalities at the Altamont Wind Resource Area: March 1998 to February 1999 Thelander, C., Rugge, L. May 2000 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds, Raptors
Horns Rev Offshore Wind Farm Environmental Impact Assessment: Summary of EIA Report Elsamprojekt May 2000 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Ecosystem Processes, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Effects of Marine Windfarms on the Distribution of Fish, Shellfish and Marine Mammals in the Horns Rev Area Hoffmann, E., et al. May 2000 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind EMF, Noise, Habitat Change Invertebrates, Fish, Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
The Likely Adverse Environmental Impacts of Renewable Energy Sources Abbasi, S., Abbasi, N. April 2000 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind
Ponnequin Wind Energy Project: Reference Site Avian Study Kerlinger, P., Curry, R., Ryder, R. April 2000 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Passerines, Raptors
Underwater Noise Measurements, Analysis, and Predictions Degn, U. March 2000 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise
Avian and Bat Mortality Associated with the Vansycle Wind Project, Umatilla County, Oregon 1999 Study Year Erickson, W., et al. February 2000 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Passerines, Raptors
Final Report: avian and bat mortality associated with the Vansycle wind project Erickson, W., et al. February 2000 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Effects on Birds of an Offshore Wind Park at Horns Rev: Environmental Impact Assessment Noer, H., et al. January 2000 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Raptors, Seabirds, Waterfowl, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Bird Mortality Associated with Wind Turbines at the Buffalo Ridge Wind Resource Area, Minnesota Osborn, R., et al. January 2000 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds
Windfarms and Birds: Calculating a Theoretical Collision Risk Assuming No Avoiding Action Band, W. January 2000 Report Wind Energy (General) Collision, Habitat Change Birds
Environmental Characteristics of Desert Tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) Burrow Locations in an Altered Industrial Landscape Lovich, J., Daniels, R. January 2000 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind
Studying Wind Energy/Bird Interactions: A Guidance Document Anderson, R., et al. December 1999 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds
Windpower and Grey Seals: An Impact Assessment of Potential Effects by Sea-Based Windpower Plants on a Local Seal Population Sundberg, J., Söderman, M. December 1999 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Baseline Avian Use and Behavior at the CARES Wind Plant Site, Klickitat County, Washington: Final Report Erickson, W., et al. December 1999 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds
Nocturnal flight activity of sea ducks near the windfarm Tunø Knob in the Kattegat Tulp, I., et al. December 1999 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds, Waterfowl
Effects of Wind Turbines on Upland Nesting Birds in Conservation Reserve Program Grasslands Leddy, K., Higgins, K., Naugle, D. September 1999 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Passerines
Status of the U.S. Department of Energy/National Renewable Energy Laboratory Avian Research Program Sinclair, K. June 1999 Conference Paper Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds
A Population Study of Golden Eagles in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area: Population Trend Analysis 1994-1997 Hunt, W., et al. June 1999 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds, Raptors
An Evaluation of the Impact of the Alameda County/Land Owner Ground Squirrel Management Program on Squirrel Abundance, Raptor Use, and Raptor Fatalities: A status report Kerlinger, P., Curry, R. June 1999 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors, Terrestrial Mammals
Behaviour of migrating birds exposed to X-band radar and a bright light beam Bruderer, B., Peter, D., Steuri, T. May 1999 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) EMF, Lighting Birds
Using Marine Surveillance Radar to Study Bird Movements and Impact Assessment Harmata, A., et al. April 1999 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds
Assessing the Impact of the Tunø Knob Wind Park on Sea Ducks: The Influence of Food Resources Guillemette, M., Larsen, J., Clausager, I. February 1999 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds, Shorebirds
Environmental Assessment: Expanded Ponnequin Wind Energy Project, Weld County, Colorado US Department of Energy February 1999 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Studying wind energy/bird interactions: A guidance document. Metrics and methods for determining or monitoring potential impacts on birds at existing and proposed wind energy sites Anderson, R., et al. January 1999 Book Wind Energy (General) Birds
Avian Risk and Fatality Protocol Morrison, M. November 1998 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Raptors
Avian Use of Norris Hill Wind Resource Area, Montana Harmata, A., Podruzny, K., Zelenak, J. July 1998 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Raptors

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