Wind Energy (General)

A broad term that refers to the various ways to generate electricity from the wind.

Wind Energy

 

Wind energy (or wind power) is a broad term that refers to the various ways to generate electricity from wind, the air flows that occur naturally in the atmosphere due to uneven heating of the Earth’s surface by the sun. The type, size, and location of each turbine depends on wind availability, directionality, and strength, as well as grid accessibility and potential environmental and socio-economic impacts. Although the most common turbine design is the three-bladed horizontal axis turbine, several different designs have been developed over time, including vertical axis and two-bladed turbines.

 

Wind energy technologies can be classified in the following categories:

 

The primary environmental concerns associated with wind energy technologies typically encompass animal collision, impacts from noise, avoidance and/or attraction, impacts from lighting, and changes in flow.

Total Results: 3025
Title Author Date Type of Contentsort descending Technology Type Stressor Receptor
Offshore Wind Farms: Their Impacts, and Potential Habitat Gains as Artificial Reefs, in Particular for Fish Wilson, J. September 2007 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Fish, Invertebrates
Offshore Wind Farms in the Western Great Lakes: An Interdisciplinary Analysis of their Potential Hingtgen, J. January 2003 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind
Offshore Wind Farms - Ecological Effects of Noise and Habitat Alteration on Fish Andersson, M. January 2011 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change, Noise Fish, Invertebrates
Where Are All the People? A Study on the Integration of Socioeconomics and Marine Conservation Planning Feldman, L. May 2009 Thesis Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Wind Farm Related Mortality Among Avian Migrants - A Remote Sensing Study and Model Analysis Desholm, M. August 2006 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision Birds
Power from the Brave New Ocean: Marine Renewable Energy and Ecological Risks Hammar, L. January 2014 Thesis Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision Fish
Assessment of the Potential for Conflict between Existing Ocean Space Use and Renewable Energy Development off the Coast of Oregon Sullivan, C. June 2012 Thesis Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning, Social & Economic Data
Populationsdynamik von kommerziell genutzten Fischarten in (durch Offshore- Windkraftanlagen) veränderter Ökosystemstruktur Diembeck, D. January 2008 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Fish
Wind Turbine Noise and Natural Sounds - Masking, Propagation and Modeling Bolin, K. April 2009 Thesis Wind Energy (General) Noise
The Ecology of Benthopelagic Fish at Offshore Wind Farms - Towards an Integrated Management Approach Reubens, J. August 2013 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Fish
Offshore Wind Power Reef Effects and Reef Fauna Roles Krone, R. May 2012 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Ecosystem Processes
Behavioural Reactions of Cod (Gadus morhua) and Plaice (Pleuronectes platessa) to Sound Resembling Offshore Wind Turbine Noise Mueller, C. December 2007 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Fish
Prediction of Structure Borne Noise Radiation and Propagation from Offshore Impact Pile Driving Huikwan, K. January 2014 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise
Implications for Offshore Wind Farm Ornithological Cumulative Impact Assessment: How the Manipulation of Density and Breeding Season Parameters Affects the Outcomes of Collision Risk Modelling Tongue, A. September 2014 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds
Valuing Public Preferences for Offshore Wind Power: A Choice Experimental Approach Krueger, A. September 2007 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Assessing and Analyzing Bat Activity with Acoustic Monitoring: Challenges and Interpretations Adams, A. July 2013 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats
Analysis of Factors that Influence Development of Wind Power in Atlantic Canada: Application of Discrete Regression Modelling Chen, Q. April 2013 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Multi-Criteria GIS Analysis for Siting of Small Wind Power Plants: A Case Study from Berlin Drews, L. January 2012 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Assessment of Bat Mortality and Activity at Buffalo Mountain Windfarm, Eastern Tennessee Fiedler, J. August 2004 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Bats
Stable Isotope Analyses of Bat Fur: Applications for Investigating North American Bat Migration Fraser, E. December 2011 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Bats
Policies and Measures for Protected Species in Wind Energy: An Assessment Between the U.S. and Germany Gartman, V. May 2014 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Bird and Bat Responses to Wind Energy Development in Iowa Gillespie, M. January 2013 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Bats, Birds
Bird and Bat Behavior and Mortality at a Northern Iowa Windfarm Jain, A. January 2005 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Migratory Stopover of Songbirds in the Western Lake Erie Basin Johnson, P. January 2013 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds
Evaluation of Greater Sage-Grouse Reproductive Habitat and Response to Wind Energy Development in South-Central, Wyoming LeBeau, C. April 2012 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Displacement Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds
Application of GIS and Spatial Analysis of Golden Eagle Fatalities Caused by Wind Turbines at the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Pinger, A. April 2013 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds
Determination of Raptor Migratory Pathways over a Large Landscape Seeland, H. April 2010 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Raptors
Evaluating the Effectiveness of Three Acoustic Monitoring Techniques for Landscape Level Bat Population Monitoring Whitby, M. December 2012 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats
Pre-Wind Energy Development Assessment of the Avian Community in the Central Texas Panhandle Wulf, S. December 2010 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds
Assessing the Influence of Wind Turbines and Land-use on Mortality Risk of Avian Species on the Llano Estacado with Emphasis on Birds of Prey Linner, K. December 2014 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Birds
Attitudes towards Marine Energy: Understanding the Values de Groot, J. March 2015 Thesis Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Power Connections for Offshore Wind Farms Schachner, J. January 2004 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind EMF
Assessing Bat and Bird Fatality Risk at Wind Farm Sites using Acoustic Detectors Heist, K. August 2014 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Bats, Birds
Assessing the Cumulative Impacts of Wind Farms on Birds Masden, E. April 2010 Thesis Wind Energy (General)
Design and Testing of an Integrated Wildlife-Wind Turbine Interactions Detection System Flowers, J. March 2015 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Bats, Birds
A GIS-Multicriteria Approach to Analyzing Noise and Visual Impacts of Wind Farms Fang, B. February 2015 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Noise Human Dimensions, Visual Impacts
Moving Towards Best Practice for Bird Mortality Mitigation in Wind Power Planning, Sweden McNally, R. May 2015 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds
Patterns of Avian and Bat Mortality at a Utility-Scaled Wind Farm on the Southern High Plains Miller, A. August 2008 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) Response to Wind Energy Development on Winter Range in South-Central, Wyoming Taylor, K. May 2014 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind
Sociological Effects of Wind Farms in Maine Barthold, J. May 2015 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Offshore Power Production and Marine Stakeholders: From Understanding Conflict to Impact Mitigation Alexander, K. January 2012 Thesis Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Fisheries, Social & Economic Data
Wildlife Impacts of and Public Attitudes Towards Small Wind Turbines Tatchley, C. March 2015 Thesis Wind Energy (General) Bats, Birds, Human Dimensions
Land Trust Response to Renewable Energy Siting Challenges in New York Adkins, C. May 2017 Thesis Wind Energy (General)
Bat Diversity, Activity, and Habitat Use in a Mixed Disturbance Landscape Hollen, J. August 2017 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats
A Spatial Analysis for Ecologically Conscious Wind Farm Siting in the Pacific Northwest Moore, E. June 2017 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind
Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis in Wind Power Project Development: Case Study in Latvia Antans, A. June 2017 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind
Windy Business: Exploring a Local Wind Power Project in Germany Dennis, K. June 2017 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Evaluating Digital VHF Technology to Monitor Shorebird and Seabird Use of Offshore Wind Energy Areas in the Western North Atlantic Loring, P. September 2016 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision, Displacement Birds, Seabirds, Shorebirds
An Analysis of Offshore Wind Development: A Non-market, Stated Preference Approach to Measure Community Perceptions and Opinions and Estimate Willingness to Pay in Two Lake Michigan Regions Knapp, L., et al. April 2013 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Surface Texture Discrimination by Bats: Implications for Reducing Bat Mortality at Wind Turbines Bienz, C. May 2016 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Habitat Change Bats
Evidence that Bats Perceive Wind Turbine Surfaces to be Water McAlexander, A. December 2013 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Collision Bats
Aerial-Hawking Bats Can Glean Prey Items From Surfaces Similar to Wind Turbine Towers: Implications for Reducing Bat Fatalities at Wind Facilities Jarzombek, L. May 2016 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Habitat Change Bats
Bats, Bugs, and Wind Turbines - Is There a Connection? Cochran, C. May 2013 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Habitat Change Bats
Surface Texture Differentiation Using Synthetic Bat Echolocation Calls: Implications for Reducing Bat Fatalities at Wind Turbines Yuen, B. December 2015 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction Bats
Cumulative Adverse Effects of Offshore Wind Energy Development on Wildlife [Thesis] Goodale, M. September 2018 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Birds, Seabirds
Turbine Induced Bird and Bat Fatalities at Wind Projects: Statistical Methods for Mortality Estimation Using Road and Pad Carcass Surveys Maurer, J. August 2017 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Bats, Birds
Potential Interaction Analysis of Offshore Wind Energy Areas and Breeding Avian Species on the US Mid-Atlantic Coast Wisman, J. September 2018 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
Shorebird Staging and Migratory Movements at Chaplin and Reed Lakes, Saskatchewan, with Implications for Wind Energy Development Howell, J. May 2018 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds, Shorebirds
Using Deuterium and GARP To Estimate Geographic Extents of Source Populations of Hoary (Lasiurus cinereus) and Eastern Red (Lasiurus borealis) Bats Killed at a Central Illinois Wind Facility Van Essen, R. April 2014 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats
Assessing changes in bat activity in response to an acoustic deterrent? Implications for decreasing bat fatalities at wind energy facilities Lindsey, C. May 2017 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats
Developing an Understanding of the Drivers of Bat Activity Patterns Relevant to Wind Turbines Thwaits, T. January 2014 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats
The Impacts of Small and Medium Wind Turbines on Bats Moyle, A. July 2016 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Bats
The Effects of Sex, Energy, and Environmental Conditions on the Movement Ecology of Migratory Bats Jonassan, K. March 2017 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats
The Role of Islands in the Migration of Bats Across Lake Erie and Lake Ontario: Lasiurus borealis, Lasiurus cinereus and Perimyotis subflavus Thorne, T. January 2015 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats
Feasibility Appraisal of an Offshore Wind Farm Located in Greece Soursou, P. October 2017 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind
Environmental impact and capacity analysis of renewable energy resources: Case study of wind energy in Turkey Degirmenci, S. August 2016 Thesis Wind Energy (General)
Overcoming Biological Data Deficiencies in Environmental Permitting for Offshore Wind Energy Ryan, K. May 2018 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind
Population dynamics in white-tailed eagle at an on-shore wind farm area in coastal Norway Dahl, E. January 2014 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Effects of offshore wind farms on birds: "Cuisinarts of the sky" or just tilting at windmills? Tingley, M. March 2003 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Birds, Passerines, Seabirds
Life Cycle Assessment of Offshore Wind Electricity Generation in Scandinavia Tveten, A. July 2009 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Life Cycle Assessment
Trade-offs between seascape and offshore wind farming values: An analysis of local opinions based on a cognitive belief framework Gee, K. May 2013 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data, Visual Impacts
The Influence of Wind Energy Development on Columbian Sharp-tailed Grouse (Tympanuchus phasianellus columbianus) Breeding Season Ecology in Eastern Idaho Proett, M. May 2017 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds
Understanding Wind Energy Impacts to Bats and Testing Reduction Strategies in South Texas Weaver, S. August 2019 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Bats
Wave Climate and Coastline Response of the Dutch Coast: Investigating the effect of large-scale offshore wind farm developments in the North Sea Ballas, G. November 2018 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment, Sediment Transport
Numerical study of multi-scale flow-sediment-structure interactions using a multiphase approach Nagel, T. July 2018 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment, Sediment Transport
Nonmarket Valuation of Marine Resources in the Northeast: Implications for Recreational Fisheries Management and Offshore Wind Energy Development Carr-Harris, A. January 2019 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Fisheries, Visual Impacts
Public Acceptance of Offshore Wind Farms in the Netherlands: Testing and Adjusting the Public Acceptance Models for a Better Wind of Change Dion, A. January 2019 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Landscape Factors Affecting Foraging Flight Altitudes of Great Blue Heron in Maine; Relevance to Wind Energy Development Dolinski, L. May 2019 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds, Shorebirds
The Need for Integrated Assessment of Large-Scale Offshore Wind Farm Development Kannen, A., et al. January 2005 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy, Stakeholder Engagement
Understanding the Environmental Impacts of Offshore Windfarms Collaborative Offshore Wind Research Into The Environment, Huddleston, J. November 2010 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind
Distribution of Harbour Seals in the German Bight in Relation to Offshore Wind Power Plants Adelung, D., et al. January 2006 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Assessing the Impact of Windfarms in Subtidal, Exposed Marine Areas Dahlgren, T., et al. February 2014 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Ecosystem Processes, Physical Environment
Effect of Electromagnetic Fields on Marine Organisms Bochert, R., Zettler, M. January 2006 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind EMF
Wind Energy Systems: Environmental Aspects and Impacts Manwell, J., McGowan, J., Rogers, A. January 2009 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind
Joint Fact Finding and Stakeholder Consensus Building at the Altamont Wind Resource Area in California Bartlett, G. July 2011 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds, Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Discrimination Between Parametric Survival Models for Removal Times of Bird Carcasses in Scavenger Removal Trials at Wind Turbines Sites Bispo, R., et al. January 2013 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds
Wind Energy Technology, Environmental Impacts of Morrison, M., Sinclair, K. June 2004 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General)
Altamont: Public Perceptions of a Wind Energy Landscape Thayer, R., Freeman, C. January 1987 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data, Visual Impacts
Using Stakeholder Input to Develop a Comparative Risk Assessment for Wildlife from the Life Cycles of Six Electrical Generation Fuels Zillioux, E., et al. July 2011 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Bats, Birds, Human Dimensions, Life Cycle Assessment, Stakeholder Engagement
A Sustainability Index for Offshore Wind Farms and Open Water Aquaculture Benassai, G., et al. January 2011 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Human Dimensions, Fisheries
Acoustic Techniques for Wind Turbine Blade Monitoring Burnham, K., Pierce, S. September 2007 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General)
Intervisibility Analysis of an Offshore Wind Farm Using GIS Tools Errico, A., et al. January 2011 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Human Dimensions, Visual Impacts
Underwater Noise Produced by the Piling Activities During the Construction of the Belwind Offshore Wind Farm (Bligh Bank, Belgian Marine Waters) Norro, A., et al. January 2010 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise
Offshore Wind Turbine Foundations: Staying Afloat in Deepwaters Sunderasan, S. January 2015 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Monitoring of Hydrodynamic and Morphological Changes at the C-Power and Belwind Offshore Windfarm Sites - A Synthesis Van den Eynde, D., et al. January 2010 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment, Sediment Transport
Numerical Calculation of the Impact of Offshore Wind Farm Power Stations on Hydrodynamic Conditions Zhang, W., Xia, H., Wang, B. January 2009 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Predicting the Weather-Dependent Collision Risk for Birds at Wind Farms Skov, H., Heinänen, S. January 2015 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds
Key Learnings from Ten Years of Monitoring and Management Interventions at the Bluff Point and Studland Bay Wind Farms: Results of a Review Sims, C., et al. January 2015 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Results and Analysis of Eagle Studies from the Bluff Point and Studland Bay Wind Farms 2002-2012 Hull, C., et al. January 2015 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision Birds, Raptors
Fauna Collisions with Wind Turbines: Effects and Impacts, Individuals and Populations. What Are We Trying to Assess? Smales, I. January 2015 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Bats, Birds

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