Wind Energy (General)

A broad term that refers to the various ways to generate electricity from the wind.

Wind Energy

 

Wind energy (or wind power) is a broad term that refers to the various ways to generate electricity from wind, the air flows that occur naturally in the atmosphere due to uneven heating of the Earth’s surface by the sun. The type, size, and location of each turbine depends on wind availability, directionality, and strength, as well as grid accessibility and potential environmental and socio-economic impacts. Although the most common turbine design is the three-bladed horizontal axis turbine, several different designs have been developed over time, including vertical axis and two-bladed turbines.

 

Wind energy technologies can be classified in the following categories:

 

The primary environmental concerns associated with wind energy technologies typically encompass animal collision, impacts from noise, avoidance and/or attraction, impacts from lighting, and changes in flow.

Total Results: 3010
Title Author Date Type of Contentsort descending Technology Type Stressor Receptor
Offshore Wind Farms in the Belgian Part of the North Sea: Early Environmental Impact Assessment and Spatio-Temporal Variability Degraer, S., Brabant, R., Rumes, B. January 2010 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Invertebrates, Marine Mammals, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Offshore Wind Farms in the Belgian Part of the North Sea: Heading for an Understanding of Environmental Impacts Degraer, S., Brabant, R., Rumes, B. January 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind
Offshore Wind Market and Economic Analysis Navigant Consulting February 2013 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Options and Opportunities for Marine Fisheries Mitigation Associated with Windfarms Blyth-Skyrme, R. January 2010 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Fisheries, Stakeholder Engagement
Pathways of Effects for Offshore Renewable Energy in Canada Isaacman, L., Daborn, G. December 2011 Report Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Changes in Flow, Chemicals, Collision, Displacement, EMF, Habitat Change, Lighting, Noise Birds, Fish, Invertebrates, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Physical Environment, Reptiles, Human Dimensions
Permitting and Leasing for Marine Offshore Wind Energy Projects Thaler, J. January 2013 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Population Sizes of Seabirds Breeding in Scottish SPAs Lewis, M., et al. July 2012 Report Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds
Porpoises North of Sprogø Before, During and After Construction of an Offshore Wind Farm Tougaard, J., Carstensen, J. February 2011 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Marine Mammals
Potential Effects of Offshore Wind Developments on Coastal Processes Beiboer, F., Cooper, B. January 2002 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment, Sediment Transport
Potential Impacts of Ocean Energy Development on Marine Mammals in Oregon Davis, A. December 2012 Report Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Preliminary Investigations of Bird-Turbine Collisions at Nysted Offshore Wind Farm and Final Quality Control of Thermal Animal Detection System (TADS) Desholm, M. January 2005 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Collision Birds, Seabirds, Waterfowl
Habitats Regulations Appraisal of Draft Plan for Offshore Wind Energy in Scottish Territorial Waters: Proposed Approach for the Screening and Assessment of the Short and Medium Term Options APS Group Scotland March 2011 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment, Legal & Policy
Report to Congress on the Potential Environmental Effects of Marine and Hydrokinetic Energy Technologies US Department of Energy December 2009 Report Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind
Residence Time and Behaviour of Sole and Cod in the Offshore Wind Farm Egmond aan Zee Winter, H., Aarts, G., van Keeken, O. September 2010 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Fish
Review of Migratory Routes and Behaviour of Atlantic Salmon, Sea Trout and European Eel in Scotland's Coastal Environment: Implications for the Development of Marine Renewables Malcolm, I., Godfrey, J., Youngson, A. January 2010 Report Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Fish
Review of Cabling Techniques and Environmental Effects Applicable to the Offshore Wind Farm Industry UK Department for Business Enterprise and Regulatory Reform January 2008 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change
Review of the Reef Effects of Offshore Wind Farm Structures and their Potential for Enhancement and Mitigation UK Department for Business Enterprise and Regulatory Reform January 2008 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Attraction, Habitat Change Fish, Invertebrates, Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Revised Best Practice Guidance for the Use of Remote Techniques for Ornithological Monitoring at Offshore Windfarms Walls, R., et al. June 2009 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds
Sandeels in the Wind Farm Area at Horns Reef Jensen, H., Kristensen, P., Hoffmann, E. August 2004 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Fish, Physical Environment
Scoping Study for Offshore Wind Farm Development in Scottish Waters Davies, I., Watret, R. November 2011 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind
Scotland's Renewables Routemap Short Life Task Force On Streamlining Energy Development Licensing and Consents The Scottish Government February 2012 Report Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Screening Analysis for the Environmental Risk Evaluation System - Environmental Effects of Offshore Wind Energy Copping, A., Hanna, L. September 2011 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind
Scroby Sands Offshore Wind Farm - Coastal Processes Monitoring Centre for Environment Fisheries and Aquaculture Science (CEFAS) July 2006 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment, Sediment Transport
Scroby Sands Seal Monitoring: Analysis of the 2005 Post-Construction Aerial Surveys Skeate, E., Perrow, M. November 2005 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Seabed Morphology Off Southern Long Island: Studies of Artificial Reefs and Implications for Wind Farms Flood, R. January 2005 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Physical Environment
COWRIE 2.0 Electromagnetic Fields (EMF) Phase 2: EMF Sensitive Fish Response to EM Emissions from Sub-sea Electricity Cables of the Type used by the Offshore Renewable Energy Industry Gill, A., et al. March 2009 Report Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind EMF Fish
South West Marine Energy Park Prospectus Southwest Marine Energy Park Coalition January 2012 Report Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Standard Investigation of the Impacts of Offshore Wind Turbines on the Marine Environment (StUK3) Bellebaum, J., et al. February 2007 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind
Statutory Nature Conservation Agency Protocol for Minimising the Risk of Injury to Marine Mammals from Piling Noise Joint Nature Conservation Committee August 2010 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Strategic Review of Offshore Wind Farm Monitoring Data Associated with FEPA Licence Conditions: Fish Walker, R., et al. July 2009 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Fish
Strategy of Approach Demersal Fish Fauna Grift, R., Tien, N. May 2003 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Fish
Summary on Harbour Porpoise Monitoring 1999-2006 around Nysted and Horns Rev Offshore Wind Farms Teilmann, J., Tougaard, J., Carstensen, J. November 2006 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise, Habitat Change Marine Mammals
Summary on Seal Monitoring 1999-2005 around Nysted and Horns Rev Offshore Wind Farms Teilmann, J., et al. November 2006 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Symposium Sound Solutions Report The North Sea Foundation February 2012 Report Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
TADS Investigations of Avian Collision Risk at Nysted Offshore Wind Farm Desholm, M. January 2005 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision Birds, Passerines, Seabirds, Waterfowl
The Development of Marine Based Wind Energy Generation and Inshore Fisheries in UK Waters: Are They Compatible? Rodmell, D., Johnson, M. January 2005 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Fisheries
The European Offshore Wind Industry Key 2011 Trends and Statistics European Wind Energy Association January 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind
The Impact of Offshore Wind Farms on Bird Life in Southern Kalmar Sound, Sweden Pettersson, J. January 2005 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds, Waterfowl
The Plan for Offshore Wind Energy in Scottish Territorial Waters Pre-Screening for Appropriate Assessment Halcrow Group June 2010 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
COWRIE 1.5 The Potential Effects of Electromagnetic Fields Generated by Sub-Sea Power Cables Associated with Offshore Wind Farm Developments on Electrically and Magnetically Sensitive Marine Organisms - A Review Gill, A., et al. July 2005 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind EMF Invertebrates, Fish, Marine Mammals
The Relation Between Birds and Wind Turbines and Other Aerial Obstacles - A Literature Survey Nygård, T., Bevanger, K., Reitan, O. November 2008 Report Wind Energy (General) Birds
The Shipping Industry and Marine Spatial Planning Patraiko, D., Holthus, P. November 2013 Report Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning
The Turning Point for Atlantic Offshore Wind Energy: Time for Action to Create Jobs, Reduce Pollution, Protect Wildlife, and Secure America's Energy Future Bowes, C., Allegro, J. September 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Thermal Animal Detection System (TADS): Development of a Method for Estimating Collision Frequency of Migrating Birds at Offshore Wind Turbines Desholm, M. January 2003 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision Birds, Passerines, Seabirds, Waterfowl
Tiree Onshore Scenario Mapping Ironside Farrar March 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning
U.S. Offshore Wind Manufacturing and Supply Chain Development Navigant Consulting February 2013 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Underwater Noise Measurements, Analysis, and Predictions Degn, U. March 2000 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise
Utgrunden Offshore Wind Farm Measurements of Underwater Noise Ingemansson Technology June 2003 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise
Visual and Radar Observations of Birds in Relation to Collision Risk at the Horns Rev Offshore Wind Farm Christensen, T., et al. January 2004 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision Birds, Seabirds
Vulnerability of Scottish Seabirds to Offshore Wind Turbines Furness, B., Wade, H. February 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Raptors, Seabirds, Waterfowl
Wake Effects on Middelgrund Windfarm Jørgensen, H., Frandsen, S., Vølund, P. July 2003 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment
West Coast Environmental Protocols Framework: Baseline and Monitoring Studies Klure, J., et al. September 2012 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind
Wind Turbine Interactions with Birds and Bats: A Summary of Research Results and Remaining Questions National Wind Coordinating Committee November 2004 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Wind Turbine Sound and Health Effects: An Expert Panel Review Colby, W., et al. December 2009 Report Wind Energy (General) Noise Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Wind in our Sails - The Coming of Europe's Offshore Wind Energy Industry European Wind Energy Association November 2011 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Worldwide Synthesis and Analysis of Existing Information Regarding Environmental Effects of Alternative Energy Uses on the Outer Continental Shelf Michel, J., et al. July 2007 Report Marine Energy (General), Ocean Current, OTEC, Wave, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change
Interactions Between Seals and Offshore Wind Farms McConnell, B., Lonergan, M., Dietz, R. January 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
The Relative Vulnerability of Migratory Bird Species to Offshore Wind Energy Projects on the Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf: An Assessment Method and Database Willmott, J., Forcey, G., Kent, A. August 2013 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision, Displacement Birds
Greater Gabbard Offshore Wind Farm Environmental Statement Greater Gabbard Offshore Winds January 2005 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Gwynt y Môr Offshore Wind Farm Marine Ecology Technical Report Centre for Marine and Coastal Studies January 2005 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind
Gunfleet Sands Offshore Wind Farm Environmental Statement GE Wind Energy January 2002 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Gunfleet Sands 2 Offshore Wind Farm Environmental Statement RPS Group June 2007 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind
Lynn and Inner Dowsing Hydrographic Monitoring Survey Emu December 2009 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
Gwynt y Môr Offshore Wind Farm Environmental Statement RWE Group November 2005 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Humber Gateway Offshore Wind Farm: Offshore ES Description of the Physical Baseline Environment Humber Gateway Offshore Wind Farm January 2005 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow, Habitat Change Physical Environment
Humber Gateway Offshore Wind Farm: Offshore ES Description of the Biological Baseline Environment Humber Gateway Offshore Wind Farm January 2005 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind
Burbo Offshore Wind Farm Construction Phase Environmental Monitoring Report Centre for Marine and Coastal Studies April 2008 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow, EMF, Noise Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Burbo Offshore Wind Farm Volume 2: ES Biological Environment The University of Liverpool Centre for Marine and Coastal Studies September 2002 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Fish, Invertebrates, Marine Mammals
Ecological Survey and Impact Assessment for the Proposed Cable Route Corridor and Substation, Walpole, Lincolnshire, & Norfolk Lapwings Consultants September 2006 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Ecosystem Processes
A Strategic Environmental Assessment of the Fish & Shellfish Resources with Respect to Proposed Offshore Wind Farms in the Eastern Irish Sea Lockwood, S. March 2005 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Fish, Invertebrates, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Ormonde Offshore Wind Farm 2010 Construction Environmental Monitoring Report Saunders, S. January 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow, Noise Birds, Waterfowl, Marine Mammals
Onshore Environmental Impact Statement for Lincs, Docking Shoal, and Race Bank OSW Farms Centrica Energy June 2003 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change
A Synthesis of Operational Mitigation Studies to Reduce Bat Fatalities at Wind Energy Facilities in North America Arnett, E., et al. March 2013 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Bats
Ormonde Project Scoping Study for Coastal and Seabed Processes Coates, T., Skipper, C., Cranmer, G. November 2005 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment, Sediment Transport, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Inch Cape Offshore Wind Farm Environmental Statement Inch Cape Offshore June 2011 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds, Physical Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Human Dimensions
Argyll Array Offshore Wind Farm: Habitat Regulations Assessment - Screening for Likely Significant Effects Dewar, R. May 2011 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision Birds
Burbo Bank Extension Offshore Wind Farm Volume 2: ES Biological Environment DONG Energy March 2013 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Analysis of the Argyll Array Turbine Layout Iterations in Relation to Ornithological Constraints Bullman, R., Shaylon, S. November 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision Birds
Argyll Array Windfarm Basking Shark Draft Chapter for Environmental Statement Booth, C., King, S., Lacey, C. January 2013 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision Marine Mammals
Argyll Array Offshore Windfarm Report to Inform a Shadow Appropriate Assessment - Great Northern Diver Potential SPAs NIRAS Consulting November 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
Identification of Outer Continental Shelf Renewable Energy Space-Use Conflicts and Analysis of Potential Mitigation Measures Conway, F., et al. September 2012 Report Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning
Developing Environmental Protocols and Modeling Tools to Support Ocean Renewable Energy and Stewardship McCann, J. September 2012 Report Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind
Aerial Surveys Of Round 3, Zone 5 For Waterbirds - Final Report WWT Consulting May 2009 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds, Waterfowl
A Review Of Assessment Methodologies For Offshore Windfarms Maclean, I., et al. May 2009 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind
Underwater Radiated Noise Due to the Piling for the Q7 Offshore Wind Park de Jong, C., Ainslie, M. June 2008 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Underwater Noise Emissions from Offshore Wind Turbines Betke, K., Schultz-von Glahn, M., Matuschek, R. January 2004 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise
Burbo Bank Extension Offshore Wind Farm: Volume 2 - Chapter 13: Fish and Shellfish Ecology Livesey, S., et al. March 2013 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Fish
Environmental Impacts of Offshore Wind Farms in the Belgian Part of the North Sea: Learning from the Past to Optimise Future Monitoring Programmes Degraer, S., Brabant, R., Rumes, B. January 2013 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Best Practice Guidance for the Use of Remote Techniques for Observing Bird Behaviour in Relation to Offshore Wind Farms Desholm, M., Fox, A., Beasley, P. January 2004 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance Birds, Seabirds, Shorebirds
Comparison of Visual and Digital Aerial Survey Results of Avian Abundance for Round 3, Norfolk Region Burt, L., Rexstad, E., Buckland, S. November 2009 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
COWRIE Workshop on the Cumulative Impact of Offshore Windfarms on Birds Norman, T., Buisson, R., Askew, N. May 2007 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds
Developing Guidance on Ornithological Cumulative Impact Assessment for Offshore Wind Farm Developers King, S., et al. June 2009 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Birds
Full Scale Trial of High Definition Video Survey for Offshore Windfarm Sites Mellor, M., Maher, M. June 2008 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds, Waterfowl
High Resolution Video Survey of Seabirds and Mammals in the Rhyl Flats Area Hexter, R. July 2009 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds, Marine Mammals
Potential Use of Population Viability Analysis to Assess the Impact of Offshore Windfarms on Bird Populations Maclean, I., Frederiksen, M., Rehfisch, M. September 2007 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds, Waterfowl
Quantifying the Relative Use of Coastal Waters by Breeding Terns: Towards Effective Tools for Planning & Assessing the Ornithological Impact of Offshore Wind Farms Perrow, M., et al. June 2010 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
Trial High Definition Video Survey of Seabirds Mellor, M., et al. September 2007 Report Wind Energy (General) Birds, Seabirds
Use of Aerial Surveys to Detect Bird Displacement by Offshore Windfarms Maclean, I., et al. October 2006 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Displacement, Habitat Change Birds, Seabirds
Predicting the Displacement of Common Scoter Melanitta nigra from Benthic Feeding Areas Due to Offshore Windfarms Kaiser, M., et al. March 2002 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Displacement, Habitat Change Birds, Waterfowl
A Further Review of Sediment Monitoring Data Carroll, B., et al. March 2010 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Nearfield Habitat

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