Wind Energy (General)

A broad term that refers to the various ways to generate electricity from the wind.

Wind Energy

 

Wind energy (or wind power) is a broad term that refers to the various ways to generate electricity from wind, the air flows that occur naturally in the atmosphere due to uneven heating of the Earth’s surface by the sun. The type, size, and location of each turbine depends on wind availability, directionality, and strength, as well as grid accessibility and potential environmental and socio-economic impacts. Although the most common turbine design is the three-bladed horizontal axis turbine, several different designs have been developed over time, including vertical axis and two-bladed turbines.

 

Wind energy technologies can be classified in the following categories:

 

The primary environmental concerns associated with wind energy technologies typically encompass animal collision, impacts from noise, avoidance and/or attraction, impacts from lighting, and changes in flow.

Total Results: 2974
Title Author Date Type of Content Technology Type Stressor Receptorsort descending
Bird and Bat Migration over Appalachian Ridges Progress Report, August 2006 Dawson, D., et al. August 2006 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Bird and Bat Monitoring at the McBride Lake Wind Farm, Alberta 2003-2004 Brown, W., Hamilton, B. September 2004 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Bird and Bat Species and Risks to Diurnal Migrants on the Clipper Windpower Criterion Project, Backbone Mountain, Garrett County, Maryland Gates, J., et al. June 2006 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Bird Flight Characteristics Near Wind Turbines in Minnesota Osborn, R., et al. January 1998 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds, Passerines, Waterfowl
Bird Impact Study of a Preloaded Composite Wind Turbine Blade Nanami, N., Ochoa, O. August 2013 Conference Paper Wind Energy (General) Birds
Bird Monitoring at Toronto's Exhibition Place Wind Turbine James, R., Coady, G. August 2004 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds
Bird Mortality at Rotor Swept Area Equivalents, Altamont Pass and Montezuma Hills, California Howell, J. January 1997 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds
Bird Movements and Collision Mortality at a Large Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine Byrne, S. January 1983 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Waterfowl
Bird Sensitivity Map to Provide Locational Guidance for Onshore Wind Farms in Scotland Bright, J., et al. June 2006 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds
Bird Sensitivity Mapping for Wind Energy Developments and Associated Infrastructure in the Republic of Ireland McGuiness, S., et al. February 2015 Report Wind Energy (General) Birds
Birds and Bats: Potential Impacts and Survey Techniques Global Energy Concepts October 2005 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Birds and Windfarms: What are the Real Issues? Percival, S. April 2005 Magazine Article Wind Energy (General) Birds, Raptors
Black Bear Corridor Crossings in the Vicinity of the Searsburg Wind Turbines as Investigated in 1995 Wallin, J. January 2006 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Terrestrial Mammals
Blown in the Wind: Bats and Wind Farms in Brazil Bernard, E., et al. December 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats
Breeding Bird Survey for the Flat Rock Wind Power Project, Lewis County, New York, Fall 2004 Kerlinger, P., Dowdell, J. September 2003 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds
Breeding Bird Survey for the Searsburg/Readsboro Expansion Wind Project, Bennington County, Vermont Kerlinger, P., Dowdell, J. August 2003 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds, Passerines
California Guidelines for Reducing Impacts to Birds and Bats from Wind Energy Development Anderson, R., et al. September 2007 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats
A Call for Conservation Scientists to Evaluate Opportunities and Risks from Operation of Vertical Axis Wind Turbines Santangeli, A., Katzner, T. June 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General)
Camera-Trapping as a Methodology to Assess the Persistence of Wildlife Carcasses Resulting from Collisions with Human-Made Structures Paula, J., et al. February 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision
Cimarron Wind Energy Project - Phase 1: Final Environmental Assessment Tetra Tech November 2011 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind
Co-Creation of Individual-Based Models by Practitioners and Modellers to Inform Environmental Decision-Making Wood, K., Stillman, R., Goss-Custard, J. August 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Human Dimensions
Collision Avoidance of Golden Eagles at Wind Farms Under the 'Band' Collision Risk Model Whitfield, D. March 2009 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Collision Mortality of Local and Migrant Birds at a Large-Scale Wind-Power Development on Buffalo Ridge, Minnesota Johnson, G., et al. August 2002 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Seabirds, Shorebirds, Waterfowl
Collision Potential of Eiders and Other Birds Near a Proposed Windfarm at St. Lawrence Island, October-November 2002 Day, R., et al. March 2003 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds, Raptors, Seabirds, Shorebirds, Waterfowl
A Comment on "Bats Killed in Large Numbers at United States Wind Energy Facilities" Huso, M., Dalthorp, D. June 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Bats
A Comparison of Perceptions towards Wind Power among Local and Foreign Residents of Jeju Island, South Korea Kojetin, D., Min, K. June 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Human Dimensions
Comprehensive Renewable Energy Feasibility Study for Sealaska Corporation: Report September 2002 through December 2005 Lynette, R. December 2005 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
A Continued Examination of Avian Mortality in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area Orloff, S., Flannery, A. June 1996 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds, Raptors
Critical Literature Review Impact of Wind Energy and Related Human Activities on Grassland and Shrub-Steppe Birds Mabey, S., Paul, E. October 2007 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds
Cumulative Impacts Analysis for Avian and Other Wildlife Resources from Proposed Wind Projects in Kittitas County, Washington Young, D. Jr., Erickson, W. October 2003 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors, Terrestrial Mammals
Decision Support Requirements for Wind Farm Placement Planning in Alberta Adagha, O., Carpendale, S., Levy, R. July 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind
Demonstration Windpower Project St. Lawrence Bird Surveys Jacques Whitford Environment May 2002 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Deriving Collision Avoidance Rates for Red Kites Milvus milvus Whitfield, D., Madders, M. August 2006 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Design and Testing of an Integrated Wildlife-Wind Turbine Interactions Detection System Flowers, J. March 2015 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Bats, Birds
Developing Methods To Reduce Bird Mortality In The Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area Smallwood, K., Thelander, C. January 2004 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds, Raptors
Development of a Cost-Effective System to Monitor Wind Turbines for Bird and Bat Collisions Phase I: Sensor System Feasibility Study Pandey, A., Hermence, J., Harness, R. March 2007 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Do Habitat Characteristics Determine Mortality Risk for Bats at Wind Farms? Modelling Susceptible Species Activity Patterns and Anticipating Possible Mortality Events Ferreira, D., et al. July 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Bats
Draft Avian and Bat Post-Construction Monitoring Plan: Raleigh Wind Farm, Invenergy Canada Dillon Consulting April 2009 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Ecological Baseline Studies Report Proposed Dry Lake Wind Project, Navajo County, Arizona Young, D. Jr., Poulton, V., Bay, K. June 2007 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Ecosystem Processes
Ecological Baseline Study for the Zintel Canyon Wind Project Erickson, W., et al. June 2002 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds, Raptors
An Ecological Risk Assessment of Wind Energy Development in Montana Martin, B., Pearson, A., Bauer, B. January 2009 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Ecology and Demography of Bicknell's Thrush on East Mountain, East Haven, Vermont: Evaluating Potential Impacts of Wind Turbine Construction Rimmer, C., Faccio, S. December 2004 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds, Passerines
Effects of Acoustic Deterrents on Foraging Bats Johnson, J., et al. January 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Noise Bats
Effects of Wind Farm Construction and Operation on Mire and Wet Heath Vegetation in the Monte Maior SCI, North-West Spain Fagúndez, J. July 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind
Effects of Wind Farms on Montagu's Harrier (Circus pygargus) in Southern Spain Hernández-Pliego, J., et al. November 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Effects of Wind Turbines on Bird Abundance: Systematic Review Stewart, G., Pullin, A., Coles, C. January 2005 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds
Effects of Wind Turbines on Birds and Bats in Northeastern Wisconsin Howe, R., Evans, W., Wolf, A. November 2002 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Seabirds, Shorebirds
Effects of Wind-Energy Facilities on Breeding Grassland Bird Distributions Shaffer, J., Buhl, D. February 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds
The Energy Footprint: How Oil, Natural Gas, and Wind Energy Affect Land for Biodiversity and the Flow of Ecosystem Services Jones, N., Pejchar, L., Kiesecker, J. March 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind
Environmental Assessment: Expanded Ponnequin Wind Energy Project, Weld County, Colorado US Department of Energy February 1999 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Environmental Assessment: Wind Energy Center Edgeley/Kulm Project North Dakota Western Area Power Administration April 2003 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Environmental Characteristics of Desert Tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) Burrow Locations in an Altered Industrial Landscape Lovich, J., Daniels, R. January 2000 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind
Environmental Noise Characteristics of the MOD5-B (3.2 MW) Wind Turbine Generator Shepherd, K., Hubbard, H. March 1989 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind
Environmental Studies Related to the Operation of Wind Energy Conversion Systems Rogers, S., et al. December 1977 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind
Estimates and Correlates of Bird and Bat Mortality at Small Wind Turbine Sites Minderman, J., et al. March 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Bats, Birds
Estimating Wind-Turbine Caused Bird and Bat Fatality when Zero Carcasses are Observed Huso, M., et al. July 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Bats, Birds
Eurus Combine Hills Turbine Ranch Phase 1 Post Construction Wildlife Monitoring First Annual Report Young, D. Jr., et al. February 2006 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind
Evaluating Pre-Construction Sampling Regimes for Assessing Patterns of Bat Activity at a Wind Energy Development in Southern California Weller, T. July 2008 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats
Evaluating the Regional Cumulative Impact of Wind Farms on Birds: How can Spatially Explicit Dynamic Modelling Improve Impact Assessments and Monitoring? Bastos, R., et al. May 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds, Passerines
Evaluation of the Environmental Impact of the 20 MW Wind Power Project in Tejona, Costa Rica Report of Phase 2 of the Tejona Wind Power Project (TWPP) van Hulle, F., et al. February 2003 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
An Evaluation of the Impact of the Alameda County/Land Owner Ground Squirrel Management Program on Squirrel Abundance, Raptor Use, and Raptor Fatalities: A status report Kerlinger, P., Curry, R. June 1999 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors, Terrestrial Mammals
Exhibition Place Wind Turbine Report on Bird Monitoring in 2003 James, R., Coady, G. December 2003 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds
Existing Natural Resource Conditions at the Proposed Deerfield Wind Project Arrowwood Environmental January 2006 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind
Exploitation of Renewable Energy Sources and Sustainable Management of the Territory: Wind Farms in Regione Liguria Solari, P., Minervini, G. January 2004 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds
Fall 2004 Avian Migration Surveys at the Proposed Deerfield Wind/Searsburg Expansion Project in Searsburg and Readsboro, Vermont Roy, R., Pelletier, S. April 2005 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds, Raptors
A Fall 2005 Radar and Acoustic Survey of Bird and Bat Migration at the Proposed Deerfield Wind Project in Searsburg and Readsboro, Vermont Stantec Consulting November 2005 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
A Fall 2005 Radar, Visual, and Acoustic Survey of Bird and Bat Migration at the Proposed Clayton Wind Project: Draft Report Woodlot Alternatives November 2005 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds, Raptors
Fall 2006 Radar Surveys of Nighttime Migration Activity at the Proposed Windpark in Coos County, New Hampshire by Granite Reliable Power, LLC Stantec Consulting October 2007 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
FatalityCMR - Capture-Recapture Software to Correct Raw Counts of Wildlife Fatalities using Trial Experiments for Carcass Detection Probability and Persistence Time Peron, G., Hines, J. January 2013 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision
Final Environmental Assessment, Burleigh County Wind Energy Center, Burleigh County, North Dakota FPL Energy Burleigh County Wind August 2005 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind
Final Environmental Impact Statement Klondike III/Biglow Canyon Wind Integration Project Bonneville Power Administration September 2006 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind
Final Environmental Impact Statement: Kenetech/Pacificorp Windpower Project, Carbon County, Wyoming Mariah Associates August 1995 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds
First Report on Bat Mortalities on Wind Farms in Chile Escobar, L., et al. January 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Bats
First Year Post-Construction Monitoring of Bats and Birds at Wind Turbine Test Centre Østerild Therkildsen, O., Elmeros, M. January 2015 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Bats, Birds
Foraging Range and Habitat use by Cape Vulture Gyps coprotheres from the Msikaba Colony, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa Pfeiffer, M., Venter, J., Downs, C. May 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind
Game Birds do not Surrogate for Raptors in Trials to Calibrate Observed Raptor Collision Fatalities Urquhart, B., Hulka, S., Duffy, K. June 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds, Raptors
A GIS-Based Multi-Criteria Evaluation for Wind Farm Site Selection: A Regional Scale Application in Greece Latinopoulos, D., Kechagia, K. June 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind
A GIS-Multicriteria Approach to Analyzing Noise and Visual Impacts of Wind Farms Fang, B. February 2015 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Noise
Greater Sage-Grouse & Wind Energy Development: A Review of the Issues Johnson, G., Holloran, M. April 2010 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds
Green Norms for Wind Power Bhushan, C., Hamberg, J., Kumar A. January 2013 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind
Guidance note: Guidance on Methods for Monitoring Bird Populations at Onshore Wind Farms Scottish Natural Heritage January 2009 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds
Guidance: Survey Methods for Use in Assessing the Impacts of Onshore Windfarms on Bird Communities Scottish Natural Heritage November 2005 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds
Guidelines for Assessing the Potential Impacts to Birds and Bats from Wind Energy Development in Northern Arizona and the Southern Colorado Plateau Lynn, J., Auberle, W. February 2009 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Guidelines for Wind Power and Wildlife in Washington State, USA Ling, S., Linehan, A. January 2003 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Guidelines on the Environmental Impact Assessment for Wind Farms Ivanović, S., et al. June 2010 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Hermosa West Wind Energy Project Draft EIS - Appendix F: Bat Acoustical Studies Taylor, K., Solick, D., Bay, K. September 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Noise Bats, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Holberg Wind Energy Assessment Report British Columbia Environmental Assessment Office October 2004 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Impact of Terrestrial Wind Farms on Diurnal Raptors: Developing a Spatial Vulnerability Index and Potential Vulnerability Maps Noguera, J., Pérez, I., Mínguez, E. June 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Impacts of Energy Development on Prairie Grouse Ecology: A Research Synthesis Hagen, C. March 2010 Conference Paper Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds
Impacts of Wind Energy Development on Birds and Bats: Looking into the Problem Edkins, M. January 2008 Report Wind Energy (General) Bats, Birds, Raptors, Seabirds
Impacts of Wind Energy on Environment: A Review Wang, S., Wang, S. September 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Bats, Birds
Impacts of Wind Farms on Upland Habitats: The Environmental Cost of Scotland's Renewable Revolution The John Muir Trust January 2008 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds
In Sowing the Wind, How Ireland could Reap the Whirlwind - A Case Against Irish Wind Development(s) Barrett, E. January 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Human Dimensions
The Influence of High Ground Squirrel Densities on the Occurrence of Golden Eagles on Altamont Ownership Consortium Property Hunt, G., Culp, L. November 1997 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors, Terrestrial Mammals
Insufficient Sampling to Identify Species Affected by Turbine Collisions Beston, J., Diffendorfer, J., Loss, S. April 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds
Kaheawa Pastures Wind Energy Generation Facility: Habitat Conservation Plan Kaheawa Wind Power January 2006 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds, Seabirds, Waterfowl
Klondike III Wind Project: Habitat Mitigation Plan Oregon Department of Energy November 2007 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds
Land-Based Wind Energy and the Environment: Potential Impacts for Wildlife and the West Michigan Landscape Gajewsk, B., et al. May 2014 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Human Dimensions, Life Cycle Assessment
Landscape Classification System: Addressing Environmental Issues Associated with Utility-Scale Wind Energy Development in Virginia Boone, D., et al. May 2005 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind
Landscapes for Energy and Wildlife: Conservation Prioritization for Golden Eagles across Large Spatial Scales Tack, J., Fedy, B. August 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors

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