Wind Energy general

Generic term that applies to all wind energy.

Wind Energy

 

Temperature differentials around the world generate winds that can have substantial power around surface features such as mountains and water. These winds can be captured by several different turbine designs, though the most common is a three-bladed monopile. Within a project site, turbines are sited in locations that experience larger and more consistent winds for greater power generation. The magnitude of winds expected in an area may play a role in determining the turbine size and design. The wind energy can be classified in the following categories:

 

The primary environmental concern for the wind energy industry is preventing bird and bat collision with blades, which commonly results in fatalities.

 

Photo Credit: "South Point Wind Farm" by Harvey McDaniel from Naalehu, HI

Total Results: 2974
Titlesort descending Author Date Type of Content Technology Type Stressor Receptor
Fly-and-Forage Strategy in the Bat Pipistrellus nathusii During Autumn Migration Suba, J., Petersons, G., Rydell, J. December 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Bats
Foraging Range and Habitat use by Cape Vulture Gyps coprotheres from the Msikaba Colony, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa Pfeiffer, M., Venter, J., Downs, C. May 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind
Foraging Ranges of Northern Gannets in Relation to Proposed Offshore Wind Farms in the UK: 2010-2012 Langston, R., Teuten, E., Butler, A. December 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds
Fouling Assemblages on Offshore Wind Power Plants and Adjacent Substrata Wilhelmsson, D., Malm, T. September 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Habitat Change Invertebrates, Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Found in the Wind: The Value of Early Consultation and Collaboration with Other Ocean Users for Successful Offshore Wind Development Frulla, D., Hagerman, G., Hallowell, M. March 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Foundation Damping and the Dynamics of Offshore Wind Turbine Monopiles Carswell, W., et al. August 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Habitat Change Nearfield Habitat
Fragmented authorities, institutional misalignments, and challenges to renewable energy transition: A case study of wind power curtailment in China Cai, Y., Aoyama, Y. July 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Human Dimensions, Legal and Policy
Framework for Assessing Ecological and Cumulative Effects of Offshore Wind Farms - Part A: Methods Ministry of Economic Affairs (Rijksoverheid) July 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Physical Environment
Framework for Assessing Ecological and Cumulative Effects of Offshore Wind Farms - Part B: Description and Assessment of the Cumulative Effects of Implementing the Roadmap for Offshore Wind Power Ministry of Economic Affairs (Rijksoverheid) July 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Physical Environment
Framework for Assessing Ecological and Cumulative Effects of Offshore Wind Farms: A First Approach to Deal with Cumulative Effects on Birds and Bats of Offshore Wind Farms and Other Human Activities in the Southern North Sea Leopold, M., et al. January 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Bats, Birds
Framework for Assessing Ecological and Cumulative Effects of Offshore Wind Farms: Cumulative Effects of Impulsive Underwater Sound on Marine Mammals Heinis, F., de Jong, C. April 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Framework for Assessing Impacts of Pile-Driving Noise from Offshore Wind Farm Construction on a Harbour Seal Population Thomson, P., et al. November 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Framework for Testing the Effectiveness of Bat and Eagle Impact-Reduction Strategies at Wind Energy Projects Sinclair, K., DeGeorge, E. April 2016 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Collision Bats, Birds, Raptors
From consultation to collaboration: A participatory framework for positive community engagement with wind energy projects in Ontario, Canada Jami, A., Walsh, P. May 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general Human Dimensions, Stakeholder Engagement
From Ground to Above Canopy - Bat Activity in Mature Forests is Driven by Vegetation Density and Height Muller, J., et al. October 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds
From identification of compatibilities and conflicts to reaching marine spatial allocation agreements. Review of actions required and relevant tools and processes Kyriazi, Z. December 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning
From NIMBY to Acceptance: Toward a Novel Framework - VESPA - For Organizing and Interpreting Community Concerns Petrova, M. February 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general Human Dimensions, Visual Impacts, Stakeholder Engagement
From Social 'Acceptance' to Social 'Acceptability' of Wind Energy Projects: Towards a Territorial Perspective Fournis, Y., Fotrin, M. January 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general Human Dimensions, Stakeholder Engagement
From strategic marine planning to project licences – Striking a balance between predictability and adaptability in the management of aquaculture and offshore wind farms Schütz, S., Slater, A. June 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Legal and Policy, Marine Spatial Planning
Full Scale Trial of High Definition Video Survey for Offshore Windfarm Sites Mellor, M., Maher, M. June 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Waterfowl
Functional and structural responses to marine urbanisation Mayer-Pinto, M., et al. January 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Invertebrates
Further evidence of impacts of large-scale wind farms on land surface temperature Walsh-Thomas, J., et al. October 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Further Use of Aerial Surveys to Detect Bird Displacement by Offshore Windfarms Maclean, I., Skov, H., Rehfisch, M. October 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Habitat Change Birds, Seabirds, Waterfowl
Future Directions in Conservation Research on Petrels and Shearwaters Rodríguez, A., et al. March 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind Collision Birds, Seabirds
Future Offshore: A Strategic Framework for the Offshore Wind Industry UK Department of Trade and Industry November 2002 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
Future Research Directions to Reconcile Wind Turbine - Wildlife Interactions May, R., et al. February 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general
Fuzzy Clustering in Avian Infrared Imagery Application Mirzaei, G., et al. June 2014 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Collision Bats, Birds
Galloper Wind Farm Project: Environmental Statement - Chapter 14: Marine Mammals Galloper Wind Farm October 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Pinnipeds, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Galway Bay Test Site January 2006 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Game Birds do not Surrogate for Raptors in Trials to Calibrate Observed Raptor Collision Fatalities Urquhart, B., Hulka, S., Duffy, K. June 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Collision Birds, Raptors
GE MOD-1 Noise Study Wells, R. May 1981 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise
General Models of the Spatial Distribution of Porpoises Require Representative Data and Parsimony: Comment on Skov & Thomsen (2008) Tougaard, J., Wisz, M. January 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Marine Mammals
Generic monitoring programme for monitoring watercourses in relation to onshore wind farm developments Marine Scotland Science April 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind
Genetic Approaches to Understanding the Population-Level Impact of Wind Energy Development on Migratory Bats Vonhof, M., Russell, A. September 2013 Report Wind Energy general Bats
Genetic Diversity in Migratory Bats: Results from RADseq Data for Three Tree Bat Species at an Ohio Windfarm Sovic, M., Carstens, B., Gibbs, H. January 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats
Geographic context affects the landscape change and fragmentation caused by wind energy facilities Diffendorfer, J., et al. July 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Ecosystem Processes, Nearfield Habitat
Geographic Origins and Population Genetics of Bats Killed at Wind-Energy Facilities Pylant, C., et al. July 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general Bats
Geographic Variation in Activity and Fatality of Migratory Bats at Wind Energy Facilities Baerwald, E., Barclay, R. December 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Collision Bats
Geological and Geotechnical Characterisation for Offshore Wind Turbine Foundations: A Case Study of the Sheringham Shoal Wind Farm Le, T., et al. July 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Habitat Change
GHG emissions and energy performance of offshore wind power Raadal, H., et al. June 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Life Cycle Assessment
GIS-Based Environmental Assessment of Wind Energy Systems for Spatial Planning: A Case Study from Western Turkey Aydin, N., Kentel, E., Duzgun, S. January 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
GIS-based wind farm site selection using spatial multi-criteria analysis (SMCA): Evaluating the case for New York State van Haaren, R., Fthenakis, V. September 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds
Global Wind Energy Policy and Development Walker, R., Swift, A. May 2015 Book Chapter Wind Energy general Human Dimensions, Stakeholder Engagement
Globalization in the wind energy industry: contribution and economic impact of European companies Lacal-Arántegui, R. April 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general Human Dimensions
Golden Eagle Fatalities and the Continental-Scale Consequences of Local Wind-Energy Generation Katzner, T., et al. April 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Collision Birds, Raptors
Golden Eagles in a Changing World Collopy, M., Woodbridge, B., Brown, J. September 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Golden Eagles in a Multiple Land-Use Environment: A Case Study in Conflict Management Madders, M., Walker, D. January 2002 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds, Raptors
Golden Eagles in a Perilous Landscape: Predicting the Effects of Mitigation for Wind Turbine Blade Strike Mortality Hunt, G. July 2002 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Collision Birds, Raptors
Good or Bad Vibrations? Impacts of Anthropogenic Vibration on the Marine Epibenthos Roberts, L., Elliott, M. October 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Invertebrates
Good practice during Wind Farm construction Scottish Renewables, et al. September 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind
Grande Prairie Wind Farm Bird and Bat Conservation Strategy Stantec Consulting Services May 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Bats, Birds
Grassland bird community and acoustic complexity appear unaffected by proximity to a wind energy facility in the Nebraska Sandhills Raynor, E., et al. August 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise Birds
Great Skua (Stercorarius skua) Movements at Sea in Relation to Marine Renewable Energy Developments Wade, H., et al. October 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Habitat Change Birds
Greater Gabbard Offshore Wind Farm Environmental Statement Greater Gabbard Offshore Winds January 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise, Habitat Change Birds, Physical Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Greater impacts of wind farms on bird populations during construction than subsequent operation: results of a multi-site and multi-species analysis Pearce-Higgins, J., et al. March 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds
Greater Sage-Grouse & Wind Energy Development: A Review of the Issues Johnson, G., Holloran, M. April 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds
Greater Sage-Grouse Habitat Selection, Survival, and Wind Energy Infrastructure LeBeau, C., et al. April 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds
Greater Sage-Grouse Habitat Use and Population Demographics at the Simpson Ridge Wind Resource Area, Carbon County, Wyoming Johnson, G., et al. March 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds
Greater Sage-Grouse: Overview and Effects of Wind Energy Development National Wind Coordinating Collaborative September 2017 Magazine Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds
Greater sage‐grouse male lek counts relative to a wind energy development LeBeau, C., et al. March 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds
Green Light For Nocturnally Migrating Birds Poot, H., et al. January 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Lighting Birds
Green Norms for Wind Power Bhushan, C., Hamberg, J., Kumar A. January 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind
Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Electricity Generated by Offshore Wind Farms Reimers, B., Özdirik, B., Kaltschmitt, M. December 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Climate Change, Life Cycle Assessment
Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Renewable Energy Sources: A Review of Lifecycle Considerations Amponsah, N., et al. August 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general Human Dimensions, Climate Change, Life Cycle Assessment
Greening Blue Energy: Identifying and Managing the Biodiversity Risks and Opportunities of Offshore Renewable Energy Wilhelmsson, D., et al. July 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF, Changes in Flow, Noise, Habitat Change Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
Greening the Wind: Environmental and Social Considerations for Wind Power Development Ledec, G., Rapp, K., Aiello, R. December 2011 Book Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds, Ecosystem Processes, Human Dimensions
Griffon Vulture Mortality at Wind Farms in Southern Spain: Distribution of Fatalities and Active Mitigation Measures de Lucas, M., et al. March 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Raptors
Ground-Level Climate at a Peatland Wind Farm in Scotland is Affected by Wind Turbine Operation Armstrong, A., et al. April 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Human Dimensions, Climate Change
Guidance Note for Environmental Impact Assessment in Respect of FEPA and CPA Requirements Centre for Environment Fisheries and Aquaculture Science (CEFAS) June 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Guidance note: Guidance on Methods for Monitoring Bird Populations at Onshore Wind Farms Scottish Natural Heritage January 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds
Guidance on Environmental Impact Assessment of Offshore Renewable Energy Development on Surfing Resources and Recreation Surfers Against Sewage June 2009 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment, Recreation & Tourism
Guidance on the Assessment of the Impact of Offshore Wind Farms: Methodology for Assessing the Marine Navigational Safety Risks of Offshore Wind Farms UK Department of Trade and Industry January 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Navigation
Guidance: Survey Methods for Use in Assessing the Impacts of Onshore Windfarms on Bird Communities Scottish Natural Heritage November 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds
Guide to the OCS Alternative Energy Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) US Deparment of the Interior, Minerals Management Service October 2007 Report Marine Energy general, Ocean Current, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, Noise, Habitat Change Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Reptiles, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Guidelines for Assessing the Impact of Wind Farms on Birds and Bats Atienza, J., et al. September 2014 Report Wind Energy general Bats, Birds
Guidelines for Assessing the Potential Impacts to Birds and Bats from Wind Energy Development in Northern Arizona and the Southern Colorado Plateau Lynn, J., Auberle, W. February 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Guidelines for Conducting Bird and Bat Studies at Commercial Wind Energy Projects New York State Department of Environmental Conservation June 2016 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Bats, Birds
Guidelines for Consideration of Bats in Environmental Impact Assessment of Wind Farms in Brazil: A Collaborative Governance Experience from Rio Grande Do Sul State Bernard, E., et al. January 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Guidelines for Consideration of Bats in Wind Farm Projects Revision 2014 Rodrigues, L., et al. January 2015 Report Wind Energy general Bats
Guidelines for Data Acquisition to Support Marine Environmental Assessments of Offshore Renewable Energy Projects Judd, A. May 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Guidelines for Reducing Impacts to Wildlife from Wind Energy Development in Arizona Arizona Game and Fish Department October 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Bats, Birds
Guidelines for Wind Energy and Wildlife Resource Management in Nebraska Nebraska Wind and Wildlife Working Group November 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Human Dimensions
Guidelines for Wind Power and Wildlife in Washington State, USA Ling, S., Linehan, A. January 2003 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Guidelines on the Environmental Impact Assessment for Wind Farms Ivanović, S., et al. June 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Gunfleet Sands 2 Offshore Wind Farm Environmental Statement RPS Group June 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Habitat Change Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Human Dimensions
Gunfleet Sands Offshore Wind Farm Environmental Statement GE Wind Energy January 2002 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Habitat Change Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Gwynt y Môr Offshore Wind Farm Environmental Statement RWE Group November 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Habitat Change Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Gwynt y Môr Offshore Wind Farm Marine Ecology Technical Report Centre for Marine and Coastal Studies January 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF, Changes in Flow, Noise Invertebrates, Ecosystem Processes, Fish, Marine Mammals, Human Dimensions, Climate Change, Environmental Impact Assessment
Habitat Engineering by Decadal-Scale Bioturbation around Shipwrecks on the Great Barrier Reef Mid-Shelf Stieglitz, T. March 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Habitat Change Ecosystem Processes, Nearfield Habitat
Habitat Preferences of Harbour Seals in the Dutch Coastal Area: Analysis and Estimate of Effects of Offshore Wind Farms Brasseur, S., et al. January 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Habitat risk assessment for regional ocean planning in the U.S. Northeast and Mid-Atlantic Wyatt, K., et al. December 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general Ecosystem Processes
Habitat Use and Selection of Black Scoters in Southern New England and Siting of Offshore Wind Energy Facilities Loring, P., et al. March 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Habitat Change Birds
Habitat use of bats in relation to wind turbines revealed by GPS tracking Roeleke, M., et al. July 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general Bats
Habitat use of migratory bats killed during autumn at wind turbines Voigt, C., et al. April 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Bats
Habitat Use, Disturbance and Collision Risks for Bewick's Swans Cygnus columbianus bewickii Wintering Near a Wind Farm in the Netherlands Fijn, R., et al. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Waterfowl
Habitat Utilization in White-Tailed Eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla) and the Displacement Impact of the Smøla Wind-Power Plant May, R., et al. March 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds
Habitats Regulations Appraisal of Draft Plan for Offshore Wind Energy in Scottish Territorial Waters: Appropriate Assessment Information Review APS Group Scotland January 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Nearfield Habitat, Human Dimensions
Habitats Regulations Appraisal of Draft Plan for Offshore Wind Energy in Scottish Territorial Waters: Information for Appropriate Assessment APS Group Scotland March 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Nearfield Habitat
Habitats Regulations Appraisal of Draft Plan for Offshore Wind Energy in Scottish Territorial Waters: Pre-Screening Review of the Medium Term Options APS Group Scotland March 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Nearfield Habitat, Human Dimensions
Habitats Regulations Appraisal of Draft Plan for Offshore Wind Energy in Scottish Territorial Waters: Proposed Approach for the Screening and Assessment of the Short and Medium Term Options APS Group Scotland March 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions

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