Wind Energy general

Generic term that applies to all wind energy.

Wind Energy

 

Temperature differentials around the world generate winds that can have substantial power around surface features such as mountains and water. These winds can be captured by several different turbine designs, though the most common is a three-bladed monopile. Within a project site, turbines are sited in locations that experience larger and more consistent winds for greater power generation. The magnitude of winds expected in an area may play a role in determining the turbine size and design. The wind energy can be classified in the following categories:

 

The primary environmental concern for the wind energy industry is preventing bird and bat collision with blades, which commonly results in fatalities.

 

Photo Credit: "South Point Wind Farm" by Harvey McDaniel from Naalehu, HI

Total Results: 2974
Title Author Datesort descending Type of Content Technology Type Stressor Receptor
Integrated Modelling Tools to Support Risk-Based Decision-Making in Marine Spatial Management Stelzenmüller, V., et al. November 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Habitat Change Fish, Human Dimensions
Effect Studies Offshore Wind Egmond aan Zee: Cumulative Effects on Seabirds - A Modelling Approach to Estimate Effects on Population Levels in Seabirds Poot, M., et al. November 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
Potential impacts of energy development on shrublands in western North America Pocewicz, A., Copeland, H., Kiesecker, J. December 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Onshore and Offshore Wind Energy: An Introduction Lynn, P. December 2011 Book Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind
Multi-Year Acoustic Monitoring of Bats at the Maple Ridge Wind Project New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) December 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats
Enhancing Carcass Removal Trials at Three Wind Energy Facilities in Portugal Bernardino, J., et al. December 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Collision Bats, Birds
Bird and Bird Habitats: Guidelines for Wind Power Projects Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources December 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds
Stable Isotope Analyses of Bat Fur: Applications for Investigating North American Bat Migration Fraser, E. December 2011 Thesis Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Bats
Pathways of Effects for Offshore Renewable Energy in Canada Isaacman, L., Daborn, G. December 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, Collision, EMF, Changes in Flow, Lighting, Noise, Habitat Change Invertebrates, Birds, Physical Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Reptiles, Human Dimensions
Marine Wind Farms and Seabirds: Updated National Screening of Potential Conflict Areas Christensen-Dalsgaard, S., et al. December 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
A new method to determine bird and bat fatality at wind energy turbines from carcass searches Korner-Nievergelt, F., et al. December 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Bats, Birds
Strategisk konsekv ensutredning for landbasert vindkraft. En evaluering av regionale planer for vindkraft May, R. December 2011 Report Wind Energy general Human Dimensions
Effect of the Horns Rev 1 Offshore Wind Farm on Fish Communities: Follow-up Seven Years after Construction Stenberg, C., et al. December 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF, Noise, Habitat Change Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Greening the Wind: Environmental and Social Considerations for Wind Power Development Ledec, G., Rapp, K., Aiello, R. December 2011 Book Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds, Ecosystem Processes, Human Dimensions
Shortlist Masterplan Wind Aerial Surveys of Harbour Porpoises on the Dutch Continental Shelf Geelhoed, S., et al. December 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Marine Mammals
Avian and Bat Protection Plan: AWA Goodhue Wind Project Westwood Professional Services December 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Bats, Birds
A Report on National Greater Sage-Grouse Conservation Measures Sage-grouse National Technical Team December 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds
Development of a Comprehensive Conservation Strategy for the North Shore Region of Minnesota in the Context of Future Wind Power Development Peterson, A., Niemi, G. December 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Passerines, Raptors
Life cycle assessment of two different 2 MW class wind turbines Guezuraga, B., Zauner, R., Polz, W. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Human Dimensions, Life Cycle Assessment
South African Good Practice Guidelines for Surveying Bats in Wind Farm Developments Sowler, S., Stoffberg, S. January 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats
Behavioral Reactions of Harbor Porpoise to Pile-Driving Noise Tougaard, J., et al. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Establishing the Resilience of a Coastal-marine Social-ecological System to the Installation of Offshore Wind Farms Burkhard, B., Gee, K. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
Habitat Use, Disturbance and Collision Risks for Bewick's Swans Cygnus columbianus bewickii Wintering Near a Wind Farm in the Netherlands Fijn, R., et al. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Waterfowl
Electromagnetic Fields Emitted by High Voltage Alternating Current Offshore Wind Power Cables and Interactions with Marine Organisms Gill, A., et al. January 2012 Workshop Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF
Assessment of the Marine Renewables Industry in Relation to Marine Mammals: Synthesis of Work Undertaken by the ICES Working Group on Marine Mammal Ecology (WGMME) Murphy, S., et al. January 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Model-Based Estimation of Collision Risks of Predatory Birds with Wind Turbines Eichhorn, M., et al. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Collision Birds, Raptors
The prosecutor's vulture: inconsistent MBTA prosecution, its clash with wind farms, and how to fix it Brunner, S. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds
Multipurpose Marine Cadastre National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Bureau of Ocean Energy Management January 2012 Website Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
Searches for dead birds in Smøla wind-power plant area 2011 - annual report Reitan, O. January 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Collision Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Shorebirds, Waterfowl
Long Range Propagation Modeling of Offshore Wind Turbine Noise using Finite Element and Parabolic Equation Models Kim, H., et al. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise
Bat Surveys – Good Practice Guidelines (2nd edition): Surveying for Onshore Wind Turbines Hundt, L., et al. January 2012 Report Wind Energy general Bats
Assessment of Offshore Wind Farm Effects on Birds and Needs to Plan their Future Development in Spain Mateos-Rodriguez, M., Muñoz, A., Arroyo, G. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Collision Birds, Seabirds
Monitoring of wintering geese in the AES Geo Energy Wind Farm 2011/2012 Zehtindjiev, P., Whitfield, D. January 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds
What is the Global Potential for Renewable Energy? Moriarty, P., Honnery, D. January 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
Bat Surveys: Good Practice Guidelines Sowler, S., et al. January 2012 Book Wind Energy general Collision, Habitat Change Bats
New Zealand Falcon Monitoring and Risk Assessment, Hurunui Wind Farm Meridian Energy January 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Raptors
Migration and Habitat Use by Seabirds in the Atlantic Flyway: Evaluation of Potential Impacts of Proposed Wind Farms Berlin, A. January 2012 Presentation Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Habitat Change Birds, Seabirds, Waterfowl
Interactions with Offshore Wind Energy: Birds and Bats Island Institute January 2012 Presentation Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Collision, Changes in Flow, Habitat Change Bats, Birds, Seabirds
Bats and Wind Energy - A Literature Synthesis and Annotated Bibliography Ellison, L. January 2012 Report Wind Energy general Bats
Flight Call Rates of Migrating Thrushes: Effects of Wind Conditions, Humidity and Time of Day at an Illuminated Offshore Platform Hüppop, O., Hilgerloh, G. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Collision Birds, Passerines
Raptors in Bosnia and Herzegovina - their status and perspectives for monitoring development Kotrosan, D., Hatibovic, E. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Effects of Acoustic Deterrents on Foraging Bats Johnson, J., et al. January 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise Bats
Wind Turbines and Coastal Recreation Demand Landry, C., et al. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Habitat Change Human Dimensions, Recreation & Tourism
Have we all gone batty? The need for a better balance between the conservation of protected species and the development of clean renewable energy Householder, L. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Bats, Human Dimensions, Climate Change
Effects of Pile Driving on the Behavior of Cod and Sole Thomsen, F., et al. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish
Multi-Criteria GIS Analysis for Siting of Small Wind Power Plants: A Case Study from Berlin Drews, L. January 2012 Thesis Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Human Dimensions
Wind Energy Development and its Environmental Impact: A Review Leung, D., Yang, Y. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Saint Nikola Wind Farm: 2012 Breeding Bird Survey Zehtindjiev, P., Whitfield, D. January 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds
Offshore Wind Farms in the Belgian Part of the North Sea: Heading for an Understanding of Environmental Impacts Degraer, S., Brabant, R., Rumes, B. January 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
South West Marine Energy Park Prospectus Southwest Marine Energy Park Coalition January 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
Mortality at wind-farms is positively related to large-scale distribution and aggregation in griffon vultures Carrete, M., et al. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Raptors
Effects of Offshore Pile Driving on Harbor Porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) Brandt, M., et al. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
What is the Source Level of Pile-Driving Noise in Water? Ainslie, M., et al. January 2012 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise
Offshore Power Production and Marine Stakeholders: From Understanding Conflict to Impact Mitigation Alexander, K. January 2012 Thesis Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Stakeholder Engagement
Reduced Breeding Success in White-Tailed Eagles at Smøla windfarm, Western Norway, is Caused by Mortality and Displacement Dahl, E., et al. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Raptors
Interactions Between Seals and Offshore Wind Farms McConnell, B., Lonergan, M., Dietz, R. January 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Ormonde Offshore Wind Farm 2010 Construction Environmental Monitoring Report Saunders, S. January 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Changes in Flow, Noise Birds, Waterfowl, Marine Mammals
Big Blue Wind Energy Project Avian and Bat Protection Plan Western Ecosystems Technology Inc (WEST) January 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Bats
Monitoring and Research Shortlist Offshore Wind - Knowledge advancements and follow up Boon, A. January 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Female Agassizs Desert Tortoise Activity at a Wind Energy Facility in Southern California: The Influence of an El Nino Event Ennen, J., Meyer, K., Lovich, J. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Habitat Change
Bats and Wind Energy Cooperative 3rd Science and All Committees Meeting: 2012 Workshop Proceedings Bats and Wind Energy Cooperative January 2012 Workshop Article Wind Energy general Bats
A Probabilistic Approach to Introduce Risk Measurement Indicators to an Offshore Wind Project Evaluation - Improvement to an Existing Tool ECUME Douard, F., Domecq, C., Lair, W. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
The European Offshore Wind Industry Key 2011 Trends and Statistics European Wind Energy Association January 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Upper Ocean Response to Large Wind Farm Effect in the Presence of Surface Gravity Waves Paskyabi, M., Fer, I. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Changes in Flow, Habitat Change Nearfield Habitat
Towards an Environmentally Sound Offshore Wind Energy Deployment Verfuß, U. January 2012 Workshop Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Human Dimensions
Noise Mitigation Measures and Low-noise Foundation Concepts - State of the Art Verfuß, T. January 2012 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise
The Lessons Learned from the Development of the Wind Energy Industry that Might be Applied to Marine Industry Renewables Garrad, A. January 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
A Forensic Investigation Into the Etiology of Bat Mortality at a Wind Farm: Barotrauma or Traumatic Injury? Rollins, K., et al. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Collision Bats
Habitat Preferences of Harbour Seals in the Dutch Coastal Area: Analysis and Estimate of Effects of Offshore Wind Farms Brasseur, S., et al. January 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Bat Monitoring Studies at the Fowler Ridge Wind Energy Facility Benton County, Indiana: April 1 - October 31, 2011 Good, R., et al. January 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats
Scotland's Renewables Routemap Short Life Task Force On Streamlining Energy Development Licensing and Consents The Scottish Government February 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
Avian and Bat Protection Plan for the Ocotillo Wind Energy Facility Ocotillo Express February 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Bats, Birds, Raptors
Weak Relationship Between Risk Assessment Studies and Recorded Mortality in Wind Farms Ferrer, M., et al. February 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general Collision Birds, Raptors
The Development and Use of a Method to Fill Time Gaps in Migration Counts Mateos-Rodriguez, M., Thomas, L., Arroyo, G. February 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
Doppler Lidar-Based Wind-Profile Measurement System for Offshore Wind Energy and Other Marine Boundary Layer Applications Pichugina, Y., et al. February 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
On the Effect of Structure-Induced Resistance and Mixing on Inflows into the Baltic Sea: A Numerical Model Study Rennau, H., Schimmels, S., Burchard, H. February 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Habitat Change Nearfield Habitat
Vulnerability of Scottish Seabirds to Offshore Wind Turbines Furness, B., Wade, H. February 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Raptors, Seabirds, Waterfowl
Benthic Communities on Hard Substrates of the Offshore Wind Farm Egmond aan Zee (OWEZ) Bouma, S., Lengkeek, W. February 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Invertebrates
Draft Black Oak & Getty Wind Avian and Bat Protection Plan Black Oak Wind, Getty Wind Company February 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Bats, Birds
Avian Collision Mortality at 50- and 60- m Guyed Towers in Central California Kerlinger, P., et al. February 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds, Passerines
Symposium Sound Solutions Report The North Sea Foundation February 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
Do Windmill Parks Function as a Refugium? Derweduwen, J., et al. February 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Fish
A Review of Methods to Monitor Collisions or Micro-Avoidance of Birds with Offshore Wind Turbines - Part 2: Feasibility Study of Systems to Monitor Collisions Collier, M., Dirksen, S., Krijgsveld, K. February 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Collision Birds
Evidence of Latitudinal Migration in Tri-colored Bats, Perimyotis subflavus Fraser, E., et al. February 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Bats
Energy By Design: Science-Based Wind Energy Siting to Avoid Environmental Impact In the Continental United States Fargione, J. February 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind
Assessing the Cumulative Impact of Onshore Wind Energy Developments Scottish Natural Heritage March 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Physical Environment
Using a Collision Risk Model to Assess Bird Collision Risks for Offshore Wind Farms Band, B. March 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Collision Birds
Best Management Practices for siting, developing, operating, and monitoring renewable energy in the Intermountain West: A Conservationist's Guide Jones, A. March 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Bats, Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Raptors, Terrestrial Mammals
Tiree Onshore Scenario Mapping Ironside Farrar March 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
How do diurnal long-distance migrants select flight altitude in relation to wind? Mateos-Rodriguez, M., Liechti, F. March 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Shorebirds
Ireland Offshore Renewable Energy Strategic Action Plan 2012 - 2020 UK Department of Enterprise, Trade and Investment March 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
Strategic Impact Assessment of Offshore Windpower in Norway - Impacts on Seabirds Lorensten, S., et al. March 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Griffon Vulture Mortality at Wind Farms in Southern Spain: Distribution of Fatalities and Active Mitigation Measures de Lucas, M., et al. March 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Raptors
Putting Aeolus to work without the death toll: federal wind farm siting guidelines can mitigate avian and Chiropteran mortality Mensing, B. March 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Bats, Birds, Raptors
Offshore Renewables - Guidance on Assessing the Impact on Coastal Landscape and Seascape: Guidance for Scoping an Environmental Statement Scottish Natural Heritage March 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Greater impacts of wind farms on bird populations during construction than subsequent operation: results of a multi-site and multi-species analysis Pearce-Higgins, J., et al. March 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds
Common Sole Larvae Survive High Levels of Pile-Driving Sound in Controlled Exposure Experiments Bolle, L., et al. March 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish
Building a stakeholder's vision of an offshore wind-farm project: A group modeling approach Château, P., et al. March 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Human Dimensions, Stakeholder Engagement
Found in the Wind: The Value of Early Consultation and Collaboration with Other Ocean Users for Successful Offshore Wind Development Frulla, D., Hagerman, G., Hallowell, M. March 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Ecosystem service tradeoff analysis reveals the value of marine spatial planning for multiple ocean uses White, C., Halpern, B., Kappel, C. March 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning

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