Wind Energy (General)

A broad term that refers to the various ways to generate electricity from the wind.

Wind Energy

 

Wind energy (or wind power) is a broad term that refers to the various ways to generate electricity from wind, the air flows that occur naturally in the atmosphere due to uneven heating of the Earth’s surface by the sun. The type, size, and location of each turbine depends on wind availability, directionality, and strength, as well as grid accessibility and potential environmental and socio-economic impacts. Although the most common turbine design is the three-bladed horizontal axis turbine, several different designs have been developed over time, including vertical axis and two-bladed turbines.

 

Wind energy technologies can be classified in the following categories:

 

The primary environmental concerns associated with wind energy technologies typically encompass animal collision, impacts from noise, avoidance and/or attraction, impacts from lighting, and changes in flow.

Total Results: 2998
Titlesort descending Author Date Type of Content Technology Type Stressor Receptor
Electromagnetic Fields Emitted by High Voltage Alternating Current Offshore Wind Power Cables and Interactions with Marine Organisms Gill, A., et al. January 2012 Workshop Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind EMF
Electromagnetic Simulation of the Near-Field Distribution around a Wind Farm Ling, H., Yang, S. January 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind EMF Nearfield Habitat
Emissions from corrosion protection systems of offshore wind farms: Evaluation of the potential impact on the marine environment Kirchgeorg, T., et al. November 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Chemicals
Empirical Evidence for Factors Affecting Searcher Efficiency and Scavenging Rates at a Coastal, Terrestrial Wind-Power Facility Peters, K., Mizrahi, D., Allen, M. December 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Bats, Birds
Encouraging Renewable Energy in the Offshore Environment Appiott, J., Dhanju, A., Cicin-Sain, B. March 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind
Endangered Atlantic Sturgeon in the New York Wind Energy Area: implications of future development in an offshore wind energy site Ingram, E., et al. August 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Fish
Energy and CO2 Life-Cycle Analyses of Wind Turbines - Review and Applications Lenzen, M., Munksgaard, J. July 2002 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Human Dimensions, Life Cycle Assessment
Energy By Design: Science-Based Wind Energy Siting to Avoid Environmental Impact In the Continental United States Fargione, J. February 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind
Energy Development Siting Recommendations for Playas Bartuszevige, A., et al. May 2017 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change
Energy droughts from variable renewable energy sources in European climates Raynaud, D., et al. September 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Riverine, Wind Energy (General) Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Energy Performances and Life Cycle Assessment of an Italian Wind Farm Ardente, F., et al. January 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Life Cycle Assessment
Energy Profiling of Demersal Fish: A Case-Study in Wind Farm Artificial Reefs De Troch, M., et al. December 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Fish
Energy Sprawl or Energy Efficiency: Climate Policy Impacts on Natural Habitat for the United States of America McDonald, R., et al. August 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Ecosystem Processes
Energy Systems and their Impacts on Marine Ecosystem Services Papathanasopoulou, E., et al. December 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Ecosystem Processes, Social & Economic Data
Energy, Economic and Environmental Impact of Wind Power in Malaysia Faizal, M., Chelvan, R., Amirah, A. July 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Enhancing Carcass Removal Trials at Three Wind Energy Facilities in Portugal Bernardino, J., et al. December 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Bats, Birds
Enrichment and Shifts in Macrobenthic Assemblages in an Offshore Wind Farm Area in the Belgian Part of the North Sea Coates, D., et al. April 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Invertebrates, Ecosystem Processes, Nearfield Habitat
Environment and Siting: Supporting Research on Impacts to Birds, Bats and Habitats from Wind Development National Renewable Energy Laboratory June 2010 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Bats, Birds, Ecosystem Processes, Human Dimensions, Climate Change
Environmental activism and vertical‐axis wind turbine preferences in California Hui, I., Cain, B., Dabiri, J. August 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Human Dimensions, Stakeholder Engagement
Environmental and Consenting Barriers to Developing Floating Wind Farms Including Innovative Solutions Natural Envrironment Research Council December 2016 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind
Environmental and Ecological Effects of Ocean Renewable Energy Development: A Current Synthesis Boehlert, G., Gill, A. June 2010 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), OTEC, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Nearfield Habitat
Environmental and Ecological Impacts of Wind Energy on Humans: Public and Workforce Safety Issues Walker, R., Swift, A. May 2015 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind
Environmental and Ecological Impacts of Wind Energy on Humans: Public Health Issues Walker, R., Swift, A. May 2015 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind Collision, EMF, Lighting, Noise Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Environmental and Social Footprint of Offshore Wind Energy: Comparison with Onshore Counterpart Kaldellis, J., et al. July 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General)
Environmental and social impacts of wind energy: a view point with reference to India Gawande, A., Chaudhry, P. February 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Environmental and Structural Safety Issues Related to Wind Energy Dai, K., Gao, K., Huang, Z. May 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind Ecosystem Processes
Environmental aspects of designing multi-purpose offshore platforms in the scope of the FP7 TROPOS Project Lu, S., et al. April 2014 Conference Paper Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Human Dimensions
Environmental Aspects of Large-Scale Wind-Power Systems in the UK Robson, A. December 1983 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Noise Birds, Human Dimensions, Visual Impacts, Stakeholder Engagement
Environmental Assessment of Offshore Wind Power Generation near Rhode Island: Acoustic and Electromagnetic Effects on Marine Animals Miller, J., et al. October 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind EMF, Noise Invertebrates, Ecosystem Processes, Fish, Marine Mammals, Reptiles
Environmental Assessment of Offshore Wind Power Generation near Rhode Island: Acoustic and Electromagnetic Effects on Marine Animals [Presentation] Miller, J., et al. October 2009 Presentation Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Environmental Assessment Studies on wind turbines and bat populations - a step towards best practice guidelines January 2005 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats
Environmental Assessment: Expanded Ponnequin Wind Energy Project, Weld County, Colorado US Department of Energy February 1999 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Environmental Assessment: Wind Energy Center Edgeley/Kulm Project North Dakota Western Area Power Administration April 2003 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Environmental benefits of leaving offshore infrastructure in the ocean Fowler, A., et al. July 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change
Environmental Characteristics of Desert Tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) Burrow Locations in an Altered Industrial Landscape Lovich, J., Daniels, R. January 2000 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind
Environmental Consequences of Offshore Wind Power Generation Parkinson, K. April 2001 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind
Environmental Effects and the Permitting Processes for a Deep Water Offshore Wind-Wave Hybrid Generator DeVault, G. March 2011 Report Marine Energy (General), Wave, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind
Environmental Effects of Small Wind Energy Conversion Systems (SWECS) Lawrence, K., Strojan, C. January 1980 Book Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds
Environmental impact analysis of power generation from biomass and wind farms in different locations Gao, C., et al. March 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Human Dimensions, Climate Change, Environmental Impact Assessment
Environmental impact and capacity analysis of renewable energy resources: Case study of wind energy in Turkey Degirmenci, S. August 2016 Thesis Wind Energy (General)
Environmental Impact and Control Measures of New Wind Power Projects Zheng, L., Zheng, L., Wei, L. January 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy (General)
Environmental Impact Assessment for Andmyran wind farm in Andøy, Nordland Bjerke, J., et al. December 2004 Report Wind Energy (General) Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Environmental Impact Assessment Methods: An Overview of the Process for Wind Farms’ Different Phases - From Pre-construction to Operation Santos, J., et al. September 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General) Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Environmental Impact Assessment of Offshore Wind Farms: A Simulation-Based Approach Lapeña, B., et al. August 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Birds, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Environmental Impact for Offshore Wind Farms: Geolocalized Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) Approach Guermont, C., et al. October 2013 Conference Paper Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment, Life Cycle Assessment
Environmental Impact of Wind Energy Saidur, R., et al. June 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Bats, Birds, Nearfield Habitat
Environmental Impact of Wind Energy Mann, J., Teilmann, J. July 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind
Environmental Impact Statement Hermanville/Clearspring - 30 MW Wind Farm AMEC Environment and Infrastructure, Prince Edward Island Energy Corporation January 2013 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind
Environmental Impacts and Economics of Offshore Wind Energy Walker, R., Swift, A. May 2015 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
Environmental Impacts Due to Fixed and Floating Offshore Wind Turbines Brewer, M. September 2012 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind
Environmental Impacts of Balancing Offshore Wind Power with Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) Bouman, E., Øberg, M., Hertwich, E. January 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment, Life Cycle Assessment
Environmental Impacts of Offshore Wind Farms in the Belgian Part of the North Sea: Assessing and Managing Effect Spheres of Influence Degraer, S., et al. January 2018 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind
Environmental impacts of offshore wind farms in the Belgian part of the North Sea: Environmental impact monitoring reloaded Degraer, S., et al. January 2016 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind
Environmental Impacts of Offshore Wind Farms in the Belgian Part of the North Sea: Learning from the Past to Optimise Future Monitoring Programmes Degraer, S., Brabant, R., Rumes, B. January 2013 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Environmental Impacts of Offshore Wind Power Production in the North Sea Draget, E. January 2014 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Environmental Impacts of Renewable Energy Mazhar, N., Zia, S. September 2019 Book Chapter Marine Energy (General), OTEC, Wave, Wind Energy (General)
Environmental Impacts of Renewable Energy Spellman, F. December 2014 Book Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General)
Environmental Impacts of Wind Power Development on the Population Biology of Greater Prairie-Chickens Sandercock, B. May 2013 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds
Environmental Impacts of Wind-Energy Projects National Research Council August 2007 Book Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind
Environmental implications of offshore energy Gill, A., et al. February 2018 Book Chapter Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind
Environmental Interview: Effects of Wind Power on Marine Life Kautsky, L. March 2016 Video Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Fish, Marine Mammals
Environmental Interview: The Effects of Wind Power on Human Interests Henningsson, M. March 2016 Video Wind Energy (General) Human Dimensions, Stakeholder Engagement
Environmental Interview: The Effects of Wind Power on Land-Dwelling Mammals Helldin, J., Skarin, A. March 2016 Video Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Terrestrial Mammals
Environmental Interview: Wind Power, Birds and Bats Green, M., Rydell, J. March 2016 Video Wind Energy (General) Bats, Birds
Environmental Issues Associated with Wind Energy - A Review Dai, K., et al. March 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General)
Environmental Noise Assessment of Wind Farms Lightstone, A. January 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Noise
Environmental Noise Characteristics of the MOD5-B (3.2 MW) Wind Turbine Generator Shepherd, K., Hubbard, H. March 1989 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind
Environmental Report: High Prairie II Wind Project Minnesota Department of Commerce February 2001 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Physical Environment
Environmental Reporting in the Spanish Wind Energy Sector: An Institutional View Mosene, J., et al. February 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Human Dimensions
Environmental Risk Evaluation System - An Approach to Ranking Risk of Ocean Energy Development on Coastal and Estuarine Environments Copping, A., et al. January 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow, Chemicals, Collision Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Environmental Sensitivity Modeling and Site Characterization Guttenplan, K., Koopman, M., Belin, D. May 2019 Conference Paper Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Ecosystem Processes, Nearfield Habitat
Environmental Studies Related to the Operation of Wind Energy Conversion Systems Rogers, S., et al. December 1977 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind
Epibenthic Colonization of Concrete and Steel Pilings in a Cold-Temperate Embayment: A Weld Experiment Andersson, M., et al. March 2009 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
Epifauna Dynamics at an Offshore Foundation - Implications of Future Wind Power Farming in the North Sea Krone, R., et al. April 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Invertebrates
Equivocal Effects of Offshore Wind Farms in Belgium on Soft Substrate Epibenthos and Fish Assemblages Vandendriessche, S., Derweduwen, J., Hostens, K. September 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Invertebrates, Fish
Establishing an Agenda for Social Studies Research in Marine Renewable Energy Kerr, S., et al. April 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Establishing the Resilience of a Coastal-marine Social-ecological System to the Installation of Offshore Wind Farms Burkhard, B., Gee, K. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Estimates and Correlates of Bird and Bat Mortality at Small Wind Turbine Sites Minderman, J., et al. March 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Bats, Birds
Estimates of Bird Collision Mortality at Wind Facilities in the Contiguous United States of America Loss, S., Will, T., Marra, P. December 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds
Estimating Bat and Bird Mortality Occurring at Wind Energy Turbines from Covariates and Carcass Searches Using Mixture Models Korner-Nievergelt, F., et al. July 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Bats, Birds
Estimating Bird and Bat Fatality at Wind Farms: A Practical Overview of Estimators, their Assumptions and Limitations Bernardino, J., et al. February 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Estimating Bird and Bat Fatality at Wind Farms: From Formula-Based Methods to Models to Assess Impact Significance Marqués, J., et al. September 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General) Bats, Birds
Estimating habitat loss due to wind turbine avoidance by bats: Implications for European siting guidance Barre, K., et al. August 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Bats
Estimating Potential Costs of Cumulative Barrier Effects on Migrating Raptors: A Case Study Using Global Positioning System Tracking in Japan Kikuchi, D., et al. March 2019 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance Birds, Raptors
Estimating Potential Costs of Cumulative Barrier Effects on Migrating Raptors: A Case Study Using Global Positioning System Tracking in Japan Kikuchi, D., et al. March 2019 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General) Avoidance Birds, Raptors
Estimating Sample Size for Landscape-Scale Mark-Recapture Studies of North American Migratory Tree Bats Schorr, R., Ellison, L., Lukacs, P. June 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats
Estimating Seabird Flight Height using LiDAR Cook, A., et al. August 2018 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
Estimating the Indirect Impact of Wind Farms on Breeding Bird Assemblages: A Case Study in the Central Apennines Battisti, C., et al. August 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds
Estimating the Political, Economic and Environmental Factors' Impact on the Installed Wind Capacity Development: A System GMM Approach Biresselioglu, M., et al. October 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Physical Environment, Human Dimensions
Estimating Wind Turbine Caused Bird Mortality Smallwood, K. November 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds
Estimating wind turbine fatalities using integrated detection trials Smallwood, K. Shawn, et al. April 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds
Estimating Wind-Turbine Caused Bird and Bat Fatality when Zero Carcasses are Observed Huso, M., et al. July 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Bats, Birds
Estimation of Bird and Bat Mortality at Wind-Power Farms with Superpopulation Models Peron, G., et al. June 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Bats, Birds
Estimation of bird fatalities caused by wind turbines in Turkey Arikan, K., Turan, S. January 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds
Estimation of seabird numbers in the German North Sea throughout the annual cycle and their biogeographic importance Garthe, S., et al. January 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
Europe, China and the United States: Three different approaches to the development of offshore wind energy deCastro, M., et al. July 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Eurus Combine Hills Turbine Ranch Phase 1 Post Construction Wildlife Monitoring First Annual Report Young, D. Jr., et al. February 2006 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind
Evaluating Acoustic Technologies to Monitor Aquatic Organisms at Renewable Energy Sites: Final Report Horne, J., et al. June 2013 Report Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind
Evaluating anthropogenic landscape alterations as wildlife hazards, with wind farms as an example Peter R. Law, Mark Fuller July 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Nearfield Habitat
Evaluating Benefits of Offshore Wind Energy Projects in NEPA AECOM July 2017 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind

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